Category Archives: Case studies

Case studies

Bank account frozen

BanksFrom time to time I am contacted by people who have found their bank account frozen by the bank without warning or explanation.  Perhaps the account holder discovers this when he attempts to use a debit card, draw cash from an ATM, use online banking, or visit his bank to pay money in or take it out.

What should the customer do and what can he expect to happen?


Contact the bank

The first thing to do is to contact the bank and ask for an explanation.  The bank might be rather evasive in response – perhaps referring to ‘technical difficulties’ – or the bank may refer the customer to a specialist department (such as the fraud department) – or the bank may hand over a pre-printed leaflet about money laundering.  But the bank are unlikely to provide a full explanation about what is happening or when the account will be unfrozen.

If the bank won’t tell the account holder what is going on the likelihood is that someone at the bank has flagged up the account for possible ‘money laundering’.  In other words someone at the bank (or the bank’s computer system) has noted what appears to be unusual activity on the account which might be connected to proceeds of some sort of crime.

If that is the case then it may be helpful if the customer very swiftly supplies to the bank further information, explanations and, if possible, documentary evidence in support of an innocent explanation for any unusual recent transactions.

Also, if there is a particularly urgent need to have the account unfrozen – for example where the account is a business account and it is necessary to pay employees’ wages or a supplier almost immediately – tell the bank about the urgency.

The bank will not disclose which transactions have triggered their action or what suspicions they have, so the customer will be left guessing how he can best put the bank’s mind at rest.

But that further information needs to be supplied as quickly as possible, preferably the same day – delaying for a couple of days will probably be too long.


Inside the bank

What is happening inside the bank is probably that the customer’s account (or accounts) will have been referred to the bank’s anti-money laundering or anti-fraud department for consideration of whether a Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) should be made to the National Crime Agency (NCA) by the bank’s Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO).

If the MLRO decides that there is a valid basis for a suspicion of money laundering (which is very widely defined) then an SAR will promptly be submitted to the NCA.  The SAR will ask the NCA to give consent for the bank to unfreeze the account.  Once that SAR is submitted matters will be largely out of the bank’s control – which means that nothing is likely to be achieved after that time by the customer supplying further information, or making a complaint, to the bank.

But the bank will not normally tell the customer whether it has made an SAR or when the SAR was submitted.

Once the bank has submitted an SAR to the NCA the account will remain frozen until either the NCA have replied to the bank authorising the bank to unfreeze the account, or the ‘notice period’ has elapsed without the bank receiving any response at all from the NCA.

The ‘notice period’ is seven working days starting from the day after the bank submits the SAR to the NCA.  So, for example, if the bank submitted an SAR on Thursday 9 June 2016 the ‘notice period’ would end on Monday 20 June.

In practice however the NCA aim to respond to these consent requests before the end of the ‘notice period’.  If the NCA are told by the bank that there is a particular urgency they will attempt to respond particularly swiftly (which is one of the reasons the customer should tell the bank if there is a particularly urgent need to have the account unfrozen).

If the NCA require further time to consider the matter they will respond to the bank by refusing consent.  Once that happens the account will remain frozen until the ‘moratorium period’ expires.  The ‘moratorium period’ is 31 days starting with the day on which the bank receives refusal of consent from the NCA.

So, for example, if the bank receives refusal of consent on Thursday 16 June 2016 the last day of the ‘moratorium period’ will be Saturday 16 July.  The account should then be unfrozen on the next working day.

[UPDATE: The Criminal Finances Act 2017 included legislation which allows a court to extend the ‘moratorium period’ by up to a further six months (an additional 186 days).  This is now in force.]

During the ‘moratorium period’ the NCA will continue to consider the position and may at any time give the bank consent to unfreeze the account.

If the NCA do not give consent then the bank should unfreeze the account once the ‘moratorium period’ has expired unless in the meantime the authorities have obtained a ‘restraint order’ from a Crown Court judge.

If a ‘restraint order’ has been obtained from a Crown Court judge then copies of that order are served promptly on the bank and on the customer (and perhaps also on others, such as the Land Registry).  A ‘restraint order’ will normally freeze all the assets of the customer indefinitely.  There is more information about ‘restraint orders’ HERE.

A customer who is served with a copy of a Crown Court ‘restraint order’ should seek advice from a solicitor experienced in such matters immediately.


What can the customer do?

The bank ‘s customer will not know whether the bank has submitted an SAR to the NCA, when the SAR was submitted, or what response has been received from the NCA, if any.

Because of this the customer will not know when the ‘notice period’ or the ‘moratorium period’ are due to expire.

Aside from very swiftly providing additional information and documents and telling the bank about any particularly urgent need to have the account unfrozen, as already mentioned, the customer will be able to do little more than check with the bank every day whether his account has been unfrozen.


What about the Banking Ombudsman?

In my experience the Banking Ombudsman does not intervene where the bank has a suspicion of money laundering and is acting in accordance with its Terms and Conditions.


How often are bank accounts frozen?

Figures published by the NCA indicate that they receive approximately 8,000 consent requests each year from banks, building societies and similar institutions.

The NCA on average respond to these consent requests in five working days – and give consent in about 90% of cases.  In about a further 5% of cases they give consent during the moratorium period.

However even where consent is granted the bank’s customer may become the subject of an investigation by the authorities (such as the police, HM Revenue and Customs or the Single Fraud Investigation Service).


What is the legal basis for this?

Most of the relevant law is to be found in Part 7, Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 – particularly in s335 and s340.

A case concerning the freezing of a bank account when a suspicious activity report had been filed with the NCA by the bank was considered by the Court of Appeal in London in the case of The National Crime Agency v N & Royal Bank of Scotland plc [2017] EWCA Civ 253 (07 April 2017).  The court concluded that it would only very rarely be appropriate for the court to interfere with the temporary freezing of a bank account where a report had been made to the NCA.


How long will the account be frozen?

In the majority of cases the account should be unfrozen within about two weeks.  In a minority of cases the account will be frozen for up to about six weeks, perhaps slightly longer.

[UPDATE: The Criminal Finances Act 2017 included legislation which allows a court to extend the ‘moratorium period’ by up to a further six months (an additional 186 days) which means that an account can be frozen for up to about 32 weeks without a ‘restraint order’. This is now in force.]

Where a ‘restraint order’ is obtained the account will remain frozen after that.


What happens after the account is unfrozen?

After the account is unfrozen the bank’s relationship with the customer may return to normal or the bank may write to the customer asking him to close his account (or accounts) within 60 days and move to another bank.

The bank may not give any reason for requiring the customer to close his account.


Can the customer claim damages against the bank?

I am not aware of any cases in which bank customers have successfully claimed damages against their bank in relation to an account which has been frozen because of a reasonable suspicion of money laundering (even where, on investigation, no ‘money laundering’ was discovered).


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to matters arising under the provisions of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Alleged possession of criminal property

Police lamp copyright David Winch 2014Pete and Tony both worked for Snodsby Council as care workers at the Flower Dew Home.  This was supported accommodation for four adults with learning difficulties, who would not be capable of living independently or managing their personal finances.  Pete and Tony had worked there for years and had become friends.

Part of their role was to take residents on trips out to local shops and attractions where the residents could spend their own funds, withdrawn for the purpose from safe custody at the home. It was permissible for the residents to purchase items for themselves and even spend small amounts on gifts for the staff – an ice cream for example.  After each trip the care workers were obliged to account for the expenditures of the residents’ monies.

But one day an allegation was made that Pete had been stealing cash from the residents. After a local authority investigation a report was prepared which alleged that, as well as stealing their cash, Pete had been spending excessive amounts on trips out.  In effect Pete was alleged to have been treating himself and Tony on these trips, taking improper advantage of the residents’ vulnerability by using their money inappropriately.



Pete and Tony were interviewed by council staff, including a manager Mr Justin Thyme.  Pete immediately admitted that he had taken some money.  Following those interviews the matter was referred to the police and both Pete and Tony were arrested and interviewed under caution by Detective Constable Arthur Crabtree.

DC Crabtree drew up a schedule of amounts drawn by Pete from residents’ monies between August 2013 and October 2014.  DC Crabtree called these “unaccounted withdrawals”.

Then DC Crabtree obtained copies of bank account statements for both Pete and Tony from their banks.  He looked for cash deposits into Pete’s and Tony’s bank accounts over the same period.  He put these deposits onto his schedule, which he called ABC/1.

The schedule showed total “unaccounted withdrawals” of £12,621 from residents’ monies between August 2013 and October 2014.  Over the same period there were cash deposits, which DC Crabtree called “unsourced deposits”, of £12,249 in Pete’s bank accounts.  In that same period there were also bank transfers of £7,960 from Pete’s bank accounts to Tony’s.



In due course Pete was charged with theft of a total of £10,221 from the four residents of Flower Dew Home, contrary to s1 Theft Act 1968.  Pete was also charged with possession of criminal property of £12,249 in money (which was the total amount of cash he had banked) contrary to s329 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and concealing criminal property of £7,960 in money (which was the total amount of the bank transfers to Tony) contrary to s327 of the same Act.

Tony was charged with possessing criminal property of £7,960 in money (which was the amount transferred from Pete’s bank accounts to his) contrary to s329 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

Pete pleaded guilty to all the charges he faced and was sentenced.

Tony pleaded not guilty to the single charge he faced.  The matter was referred to the Crown Court and a trial date was fixed.


An ‘open and shut’ case?

One might think that Tony was certain to be convicted because Pete had already pleaded guilty to concealing criminal property of the £7,960 which he had transferred to Tony.  But matters are not that straightforward.  Pete might have been advised to plead guilty to all the charges he faced rather than risk further investigations by the council or the police and to get the maximum reduction in sentence from an early guilty plea.  Because Pete had pleaded guilty the prosecution evidence had not been challenged in court by Pete’s legal team.

The court was not entitled to assume that because Pete had pleaded guilty, Tony must also be guilty.  Added to that, even if Pete was guilty of concealing criminal property of £7,960 by transferring it to Tony, it should not automatically follow that Tony would be guilty of possessing criminal property by receiving that money – that would depend, amongst other things, on whether Tony suspected or knew the money was proceeds of crime.


Possible defences

Tony’s legal team were aware of four alternative possible reasons why he might be found not guilty of the offence of which he had been charged.

These were

  1. the £7,960 was not proceeds of crime, or
  2. the £7,960 was proceeds of crime, but Tony neither knew nor suspected that, or
  3. the £7,960 was repayment of monies Tony had previously lent to Pete, or
  4. the £7,960 transferred into Tony’s bank account was not money which was in Tony’s “possession”.


Our instructions

Tony’s solicitors instructed us to consider the prosecution evidence, including exhibit ABC/1 – DC Crabtree’s schedule of “unaccounted withdrawals”, “unsourced deposits” and bank transfers from Pete to Tony – in relation to possible reasons 1 and 3 and to prepare an expert witness report suitable to be served in evidence.  If necessary we would attend Tony’s trial and give oral evidence.


Our work

We prepared a fee estimate which was approved by the Legal Aid Agency.  Then we set to work.

The first thing we did was to attempt to verify all the entries on exhibit ABC/1 to supporting bank statements or other documentary evidence supplied by the prosecution.

The documents presented to us by our instructing solicitors were the prosecution bundle which included witness statements from DC Crabtree and the council manager Mr Thyme and the bank statements of Pete’s and Tony’s which DC Crabtree had obtained – but did not include any accounting records of Flower Dew Home relating to residents’ monies (which had been referred to by Mr Thyme in his witness statement) nor the transcripts of the interviews DC Crabtree had held with Pete and Tony.  Also there was no prosecution case summary in the bundle nor any documents from the plea and trial preparation hearing.


The prosecution case

Our understanding was that the prosecution case was that the “unaccounted withdrawals” were monies stolen from residents (although Mr Thyme’s witness statement said that there had been inappropriate spending on trips out – but not that the entirety of the monies drawn were stolen), that the “unsourced deposits” were stolen cash banked by Pete into his account, and that the bank transfers to Tony were funded from the “unsourced deposits” (and hence were monies stolen by Pete).


Our findings

We were not able to confirm that the “unaccounted withdrawals” were stolen monies (although they might be) because we had not seen the records of Flower Dew Home and because Mr Thyme’s witness statement suggested that only part of the monies withdrawn were stolen or used inappropriately on gifts or treats for Pete and Tony.

We were able to identify on exhibit ABC/1 the particular withdrawals making up the £10,221 which Pete had admitted to stealing, but we could find no reason why Pete had not been charged with the theft of the whole of the unaccounted withdrawals of £12,621 listed on exhibit ABC/1.  It seemed that some withdrawals on the list may simply have been omitted from the theft charges on the indictment in error.

We were able to identify the deposits totalling £12,249 on Pete’s bank account statements and the bank transfers of £7,960 from Pete’s bank accounts to Tony’s on both Pete’s and Tony’s bank statements.

Chart of withdrawals v deposits

But when we looked at the detail of the dates and amounts of the “unaccounted withdrawals” and “unsourced deposits” on exhibit ABC/1 we found that although the total of the withdrawals (the alleged cash stolen) of £12,621 and Pete’s bank deposits of £12,249 were very similar, the timing and pattern of the alleged thefts and the bank deposits did not tie up.

We prepared a graph of the “unaccounted withdrawals” and “unsourced deposits”, day by day, which illustrated the mismatch between the two.  This showed that at least some of the bank deposits occurred before the cash thefts admitted by Pete, which meant that those deposits cannot have related to the thefts in question.

It also became clear that Pete had at least one account with another bank – and those other bank statements had not been obtained by DC Crabtree.  So the picture we had of Pete’s financial affairs was incomplete and, in our opinion at least, some of the inferences drawn by DC Crabtree were therefore not reliable.


Pete’s legitimate income

It seemed that until January 2014 Pete’s monthly salary had been paid by bank transfer from Snodsby Council into the bank account examined by DC Crabtree.  There was a pattern of Pete transferring most of his salary out of this account into his account with the other bank soon after he was paid each month.  Then there seemed to be a series of smaller transfers back to this account, presumably when Pete needed spending money.

After January 2014 there were no salary credits from Snodsby Council, but the transfers into the account from the other bank continued.  We inferred from this that from February 2014 onwards Pete’s monthly salary had been credited to his account with the other bank (although neither ourselves nor DC Crabtree had seen any bank statements for that account).

It had not been suggested that Pete’s monthly salary was proceeds of any crime.


The monies transferred to Tony

We then looked at the timing of the transfers from Pete’s bank account to Tony’s and the credits to Pete’s account immediately before those transfers, to see how far, on a practical level, the transfers to Tony seemed to be funded from the “unsourced deposits” into Pete’s account.

We found that more often than not the transfers to Tony seemed to be more closely related to Pete’s monthly salary credits or to monies Pete had transferred into his account from his account at the other bank.  Of the £7,960 transferred to Tony only £250 looked to be more closely related to “unsourced deposits” than other credits to Pete’s account.


Tony’s loans to Pete

Finally we looked to see if, outside the indictment period of August 2013 to October 2014, there were transfers of monies between Pete and Tony.  Tony had told his solicitors that he had often lent money to his friend Pete and been paid back over time, so there was nothing unusual in Pete transferring money into his bank account.  We did find evidence of such money transfers, in both directions, both before August 2013 and after October 2014.

That finding supported Tony’s evidence in that respect.  It also strengthened the possibility that the transfers from Pete to Tony were repayments of earlier informal loans from Tony to Pete.


Our report and its impact

We prepared a formal expert witness report and submitted it to Tony’s solicitors.  They in turn served copies on the prosecution and the Crown Court.

A little while later the prosecution indicated to Tony’s solicitors that they would not continue with the prosecution of Tony and in due course he was formally acquitted of the charge.

So a prosecution case which at first sight might have appeared to be overwhelming had proved on detailed examination to be full of holes.


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article refers to a criminal prosecution in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to criminal proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in an article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case. Names and certain other details have been changed in this article in order to preserve client confidentiality.)

A confiscation case study – the career fraudster

Books - copyright David Winch 2014On 16 June 2014 the Court of Appeal in London heard the appeal of Mr Sam Ernest against a confiscation order in the sum of £308,380 made against him at Kingston-upon-Thames Crown Court.  The Appeal Court judgment R v Ernest [2014] EWCA Crim 1312 makes interesting reading.

Mr Ernest purported to run a business as an events organiser.  He would claim to have contacts from whom he could obtain sought-after tickets to popular high profile events, such as Wimbledon, the London Olympics, rock concerts or film festivals, in return for money.

Mr Ernest sometimes provided the tickets for which he had been paid, but often he would not.  When tickets were not provided he would usually promise refunds – on some occasions refunds were given, but on others they were not.


The victims

His victims were in the main either wealthy people or organisations who could afford to pay substantial sums of money for prestige events, or men whom he had befriended or women with whom he entered into relationships.

One woman with whom he was having a relationship got a party of 18 people together, some from the USA, to attend events at the London Olympics.  She paid almost £4,000 to Mr Ernest.  He continued to promise that the tickets would arrive right up until after her friends had arrived in the UK.

In total Mr Ernest defrauded his victims of over £48,000.


The police investigation

Mr Ernest’s activities had first been reported to the police in 2009, but they took no action at that stage.  It was not until 2012, when a special team of police officers were investigating fraud associated with tickets for the London Olympics, that attention was focused on his activities.

On discovering that the police wished to speak to him, Mr Ernest prevaricated and would not agree to attend for interview.  No doubt this was in part because he was a United States citizen who had entered the UK on a six month tourist visa in 2005 and was an illegal over-stayer. His passport had expired in 2010.

However in December 2012 Mr Ernest pleaded guilty to 17 counts of fraud and was sentenced to 4 years imprisonment.  Confiscation proceedings followed.


The confiscation proceedings

Mr Ernest was subject to confiscation proceedings on the basis that he had a ‘criminal lifestyle‘ having been convicted in the same proceedings of more than 3 offences from which he had obtained a benefit and had, in aggregate, obtained a benefit of at least £5,000, s75 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

The Appeal Court judgment does not, of course, give a full history of the confiscation proceedings.  We do not know what was in the prosecution’s s16 statement or in Mr Ernest’s response.  We do know, however, that the confiscation went to a full hearing in the Crown Court which heard evidence from a Detective Constable Knowles and from Mr Ernest.


The prosecution assertions

DC Knowles referred to bank accounts held by a Ms Barbara Howell which had apparently been used by Mr Ernest (and by Ms Howell for legitimate purposes).  There was also a bank account in the name of J Bailey Morgan which apparently Mr Ernest controlled.  DC Knowles considered the movements on these bank accounts since the ‘relevant day’, which it was agreed was 29 August 2006 (six years prior to the date on which Mr Ernest had been charged).

DC Knowles calculated the amount of money in these accounts paid in by known victims together with all of the unexplained credits to the accounts, that is all the monies deposited during the relevant period other than those which represented Ms Howell’s legitimate earnings and funds. This figure came to £209,980. This figure included sums specifically identified as being monies paid into that account by persons identified as victims of Mr Ernest’s activities.

The prosecution invited the court to assume all these sums credited to the various bank accounts to be benefit of Mr Ernest’s general criminal conduct pursuant to s10(2).  Presumably to avoid risk of double counting the prosecution did not seek to assert, as benefit of particular criminal conduct, any additional benefit of the 17 offences of which Mr Ernest had been convicted.

However the prosecution did assert that a further assumed benefit arose, under s10(4), in respect of Mr Ernest’s day to day living expenses over the period since the ‘relevant day’.  These were estimated at £16,400 per year for 6 years, so £98,400 in total.  The prosecution accepted that to some extent Mr Ernest had been financially supported over this period by a succession of girlfriends but contended that, even so, he would have incurred this £98,400 expenditure himself.

In consequence, the prosecution’s total benefit figure was £308,380.  The prosecution apparently did not accept that Mr Ernest’s ‘available amount’ would be less than his benefit.


The defence evidence

Mr Ernest asserted that on at least some occasions he had supplied tickets for which he had been paid and on other occasions he had made refunds to customers.  So it would not be correct, in his view, to treat the entirety of the sums banked as benefit.  He also asserted that he had no assets available and no hidden assets.

However the defence produced no books and records of the business and no report of a forensic accountant, nor did the defence produce documentary evidence of Mr Ernest’s current ‘available amount’.  The defence relied upon the oral evidence of Mr Ernest.


The judgment in the Crown Court

The Crown Court judge entirely rejected the oral evidence of Mr Ernest.  He was, the judge concluded, a “career fraudster” who had used the bank accounts of others and had produced no documents in support of his oral evidence.  The judge concluded that he was a dishonest man who had lied repeatedly under oath.

The judge accepted the benefit figure of £308,380 asserted by the prosecution and found that the defendant had not discharged the burden upon him to show that his ‘available amount’ was less than his benefit.

Accordingly he ordered Mr Ernest to pay £308,380 within 6 months, with a default sentence of 3 years consecutive to the prison term he was already serving.


The Court of Appeal judgment

On appeal it was argued that the judge should have reduced the benefit figure to reflect legitimate business activities conducted by Mr Ernest where he had provided tickets or had made refunds.  Furthermore Mr Ernest had incurred expenditures in obtaining the tickets which he had supplied.

The Court of Appeal would have none of this.  It noted the absence of evidence in support of the asserted legitimate activities and commented that “the fact that some unidentified proportion of that money might conceivably be referable to some specific (but unidentified) business transaction does not render the making of the assumption incorrect”.

The Court was not prepared to make any reduction in the benefit figure in respect of expenses which Mr Ernest might have incurred.  It regarded the occasional provision of tickets by Mr Ernest as a means of furthering his fraudulent purpose by luring customers to do more business with him.

The £209,980 assumed benefit arising from credits to the bank accounts was therefore upheld.

But the Court of Appeal did accept that the bank statements showed expenditures by Mr Ernest on his living costs.  These expenditures had therefore been met from monies already included in assumed benefit.  This undermined the prosecution’s assertion that Mr Ernest would have incurred £98,400 of living expenditure funded entirely by additional assumed criminal conduct.  There was no other suitable figure before the court, so this head of benefit was omitted on appeal.

In consequence the benefit figure was reduced to £209,980.  The court ordered Mr Ernest to pay this lower figure and reduced the default sentence to 2 years 6 months.



One doesn’t know whether in this case the defence had instructed a forensic accountant or not.  It is possible that a forensic accountant’s report had been obtained but had not been disclosed as part of the defence evidence (perhaps for good reason!).

However it should come as no surprise to find a Crown Court judge entirely rejecting the unsupported oral evidence of a convicted defendant.  Possibly if a forensic accountant had given evidence in the Crown Court confiscation hearing the judge might have accepted that the defendant, having incurred the expenses shown on the bank accounts, would not have had an ‘available amount’ equal to the total of his assumed benefit.  Such a conclusion would have been consistent with the Court of Appeal decision in McIntosh & Marsden v R [2011] EWCA Crim 1501.

In the event this defendant seems destined to serve his default sentence in due course.


(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Accountant sentenced to 7 years for cheat & fraud

Legal wig copyright David Winch 2014An accountant has been sentenced to 7 years’ imprisonment for cheating HMRC and defrauding his clients.

Simon Terry Pearce, 48, who held no recognised accountancy qualifications, ran S T Pearce Accountants from offices in St Austell, Cornwall.  He was convicted on 26 charges after a ten week trial at Truro Crown Court.  The prosecution evidence assembled by HM Revenue & Customs ran to approaching 40,000 pages and, in total, 51 prosecution witnesses were called to give evidence.


The allegations

It was alleged that over a period of several years Mr Pearce had operated his practice dishonestly by preparing tax returns for his clients which overstated their business expenses and the tax which they had suffered under the Construction Industry Scheme (CIS tax), overclaimed capital allowances particularly in relation to cars and – in relation to Capital Gains Tax – understated the sales proceeds of properties.  In many cases Mr Pearce had revised previous years’ tax returns for new clients.  The result of all this was that his clients’ tax liabilities were dishonestly understated and tax refunds were generated falsely.

It was further alleged that Mr Pearce had forged clients’ signatures and dishonestly abused HMRC’s Structured Action Request online system for taxpayers and their authorised agents with the result that clients’ tax refunds were paid by HMRC into his bank account rather than to the clients.  Whilst in some cases these refunds were forwarded to clients fully and reasonably promptly, in many cases refund payments were delayed (sometimes by a period of years), or paid on only in part, or not paid on at all.

Finally it was alleged that in relation to Mr Pearce’s own tax returns he had dishonestly understated his fee income and that he had failed to register his business for VAT at the appropriate time.


Mr Pearce’s defence

Mr Pearce said that he had not been dishonest. The tax returns which he had prepared for clients reflected the information which clients had provided to himself and his staff at interviews with them.  He had included fair estimates of expenditures for which the clients had no documentary evidence, particularly in relation to travelling and subsistence.  He had misunderstood tax law in relation to motor cars, believing that 100% first year allowances or annual investment allowances were available, and the abolition of CGT taper relief in 2008 had not come to his attention.

He had arranged for clients’ tax refunds to be paid to his bank account when fees were due to him.  His failure to pass the balance of refunds on to clients was as a result of inadequate and misleading information received from HMRC, poor record keeping in his office and pressure of work resulting from having taken on too many clients.  He had fobbed off clients who had enquired about their refunds and had given them excuses and explanations for delays which were untrue.  He accepted that he had used HMRC’s online Structured Action Request facility to arrange refunds to be paid to him but believed he was entitled to do so.

He asserted that clients’ income tax returns were only submitted to HMRC after clients knew what was on them, albeit that the clients may have received and signed paper copies of the returns only after they had been filed online with HMRC.


My role

I was instructed by Mr Pearce’s solicitors and counsel to advise them on generally accepted conduct by accountants in relation to the preparation of accounts and tax returns for clients, relevant tax law and practice, the proper treatment of clients’ tax refunds, and to examine Mr Pearce’s own business records and those of certain of his clients, together with the associated accounts and tax computations, to advise whether tax liabilities had been understated.

I attended court and advised the defence team throughout the presentation of the prosecution case but I was not myself called to give evidence.  The only witness called by the defence was Mr Pearce himself.


The clients’ evidence

The clients typically gave evidence to the effect that they relied upon and trusted Mr Pearce as their accountant to deal properly with their accounts and tax affairs.  In many cases they denied providing Mr Pearce with information which he claimed to have received from them.

They did not themselves understand accounts or tax and believed that their tax returns were being correctly prepared and that they were entitled to any refunds which they had received.  They were devastated when they learned that they were required to repay substantial sums to HMRC.


The outcome

The jury found Mr Pearce guilty on 26 of the 30 counts which he faced.  Clearly the jury considered him to have been thoroughly dishonest over a period of years.


The lessons to be learned

Mr Pearce frequently received tax refunds on behalf of clients but did not operate a client bank account.  In practice refunds received were swallowed up by business and private expenses leaving Mr Pearce unable to pass on to clients the monies which were due to them.

The firm’s working papers and interview notes in support of figures in the accounts and tax returns were inadequate to demonstrate persuasively which figures were based on information that had been provided by clients and which were based on estimates made by Mr Pearce apparently based on his general knowledge of his clients’ activities – or to refute the allegations that some increases in claimed expenses arose purely from fabrications by Mr Pearce.

In many cases business expenses in accounts and returns had apparently been compiled based only on an examination of paid bills and discussions with clients – and without examination of clients’ bank statements.  In the majority of cases which I examined Balance Sheets had not been prepared.  Had the accountancy work been more thorough then many mis-statements which were made on tax returns, for example from duplication of genuine expenditures, could have been avoided.

Either Mr Pearce’s knowledge of tax law and practice was faulty and out of date in important respects or he was claiming allowances and reliefs for his clients which he knew were not available to them.



This was a very significant prosecution by HMRC, the biggest case ever prosecuted by them in Cornwall, and a major case by any standards.  Few Crown Court trials run to ten weeks or involve over 50 witnesses and few criminal investigations generate approaching 40,000 pages of exhibits.  The prosecution asserted that Mr Pearce had ultimately retained £170,000 in refunds due to his clients and that overall HMRC had lost between £1 million and £2 million as a result of his activities.

I have no doubt that my advice was valuable to the defence in professionally examining the prosecution evidence and ensuring that it was appropriately challenged.  Ultimately the weight of evidence against Mr Pearce was overwhelming and the jury were sure that he had been dishonest.


(Note: This article refers to a criminal prosecution in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to criminal proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in an article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Criminal lifestyle confiscation and output VAT

The Court of Appeal have recently handed down a judgment in the ‘criminal lifestyle’ confiscation case of R v Harvey [2013] EWCA Crim 1104.

This was a case in which I had been instructed by the defendant’s solicitors in the confiscation proceedings in the Crown Court.



The defendant was a director and majority shareholder in a limited company engaged in hire of plant and equipment (sometimes with drivers, sometimes just the plant itself).

A number of items of plant used by the company were found to be stolen property and the defendant pleaded guilty to 9 counts of ‘handling’ contrary to s22 Theft Act 1968.  A further 30 counts were left to lie on the file.

The defendant was subject to confiscation under PoCA 2002 on the basis that he had a ‘criminal lifestyle’ and that the veil of incorporation of the company should be pierced.


Benefit for confiscation purposes

The prosecution contention initially in a statement under s16 PoCA 2002 was that the entirety of the gross receipts of the company (inclusive of VAT) since the ‘relevant day’ constituted assumed ‘benefit’ of the defendant for the purposes of confiscation.

By the time of the hearing in the Crown Court the prosecution had changed its position.  Whilst it was unable to put a figure on the proportion of company receipts which were derived from criminal conduct, it was significant that the police had inspected 91 items of plant (both large and small) and considered 39 of those items to be stolen property (that is approximately 42.8% on an ‘item count’ basis).


The decision in the Crown Court

At Crown Court the judge held that 38% of the company’s gross receipts (inclusive of VAT) since the ‘relevant day’ were to be regarded as ‘benefit’.  Those gross receipts included not just trading income but also receipts from the sale of plant.

This 38% figure was based on the 42.8% on an ‘item count’ basis, reduced to recognise the greater earning power of the (legitimate) larger and more expensive items of plant.  The judge concluded that the defendant had known that all 39 items of plant (not just the 9 items in relation to which he had pleaded guilty to ‘handling’) were stolen property.

The Crown Court judge did not accept that he should be guided by a detailed analysis of a representative sample of company sales invoices over the period since the ‘relevant day’ which appeared to show a much smaller proportion of the company’s income was derived from the stolen plant.  He concluded that the defendant was dishonest and his company records did not reflect the entirety of the transactions of the business and so figures based on company records were not persuasive.

The benefit found by the judge was calculated accordingly at approximately £2.2m (based on the value of the 39 stolen items plus 38% of gross receipts of the company since the ‘relevant day’) and he set a default term of 10 years.


The appeal to the Court of Appeal

The defendant appealed on the grounds that:

  1. VAT charged to customers and accounted for to HMRC should be excluded from the gross receipts figure.
  2. Stolen plant had been recovered by the police and returned (sometimes after many years of use) to its rightful owners, but no reduction had been made in the benefit figure to reflect this.
  3. The 38% figure was too high on the facts and, in particular, had been applied to all receipts including demonstrably legitimate income from the sale of legitimately acquired plant.
  4. The default sentence of 10 years was excessive.

The Court of Appeal reduced the default term to 8 years but otherwise upheld the confiscation order in full, dismissing the appeal on each of the first three grounds.

The Court of Appeal took the opportunity to review and comment upon various confiscation cases – some very recent, some older – in the light of the decision of the Supreme Court in R v Waya.  In particular the Court of Appeal opined that the decision in R v Del Basso and Goodwin [2010] EWCA Crim 1119 now “does seem excessively harsh and may arguably be characterised as disproportionate”.

Defendants and accountants may be disappointed to note the Appeal Court’s decision (even after the Waya case) that output VAT charged on the (assumed) illegitimate receipts of a legitimate business is to be regarded as a component of benefit in a ‘criminal lifestyle’ confiscation – even where that output VAT has been properly accounted for and paid over to HMRC.  The Court of Appeal considered that there was nothing in Waya which called into question the manner in which the Court of Appeal in Del Basso dealt with VAT and that therefore Del Basso was binding authority on that point.

But the Court of Appeal in any event approved this approach, commenting, “It would be wrong in principle to carry out an accounting exercise in respect of VAT which [the business] collected through the use of stolen property”.  The total monies paid by customers, including the VAT charged, constituted property obtained by criminal conduct.

[UPDATE:  On 16 December 2015 the UK Supreme Court upheld Mr Harvey’s appeal against this element in the calculation of his benefit for confiscation purposes.  The UKSC held that where VAT has been accounted for to HMRC it would be disproportionate under A1P1 to make a confiscation order calculated on the basis that the VAT, or a sum equivalent, was “obtained” by the defendant for the purposes of PoCA 2002.]

The Court of Appeal’s view must, by implication, be taken to be that they did not consider the confiscation order of £2.2m to be disproportionate in all the circumstances.


(Note: This article applies to confiscation orders under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation order in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

A book-keeper accused of stealing

Beatrix was Mr McGregor’s book-keeper – or more correctly she was a self-employed book-keeper and Company Secretary working for Mr McGregor’s company, which was an agency supplying circus acts and finding ‘C’ list celebrities to open supermarkets and the like.  But times were tough and it seemed like, however hard Mr McGregor worked, he was just scraping by.

Fortunately Mr McGregor could rely on the faithful Beatrix to look after the paperwork and pay the bills and the part-time staff.  One Sunday Mr McGregor was wondering how much there was in the company’s accounts with the District Bank and the Provincial.  So, unusually for him, he had a look at the bank statements.

He was shocked by what he saw.  Not only was there next to nothing in either of the company bank accounts but a quick check of the bank statements showed numerous transfers in the past month or two to Beatrix and to her daughter, and payments to Rentaphone and CloudsTV (neither of which Mr McGregor knew anything about) as well as several cash machine withdrawals and petrol purchases.


The police

Mr McGregor phoned the police and arranged an interview with Detective Constable Carrott.  He made a formal statement alleging that Beatrix had stolen money from the company.

DC Carrott interviewed Beatrix who said that all the expenditures were legitimate and had been authorised by Mr McGregor who had agreed that the company should pay Beatrix’s phone and TV subscriptions and her petrol bills.  The cash had been drawn on Mr McGregor’s instructions.  Some had been used to pay company bills in cash and the rest had been handed over to him.  There was nothing in writing because Beatrix and Mr McGregor had a relationship based on trust.  Beatrix denied any wrongdoing.

DC Carrott met with Mr McGregor again.  He denied authorising payment of any of Beatrix’s bills and he denied receiving any of the cash.

Mr McGregor now produced to DC Carrott bank statements and voluminous accounting records going back over more than two years revealing a stream of unauthorised payments and withdrawals made by Beatrix.  In total over £40,000 had been stolen, he alleged.

Meanwhile DC Carrott did a little digging and found that, while she was working for Mr McGregor’s company, Beatrix had been receiving Job Seeker’s Allowance and Council Tax Benefit on the basis that she was not working and had no earnings.

Beatrix was charged with theft of cash and fraud by abuse of position in relation to Mr McGregor’s company and making false representations to obtain Job Seeker’s Allowance and Council Tax Benefit.


The solicitor

After consulting her solicitor Beatrix decided to plead guilty to making false representations to obtain benefits but continued to deny any wrongdoing in relation to Mr McGregor’s company.  She told her solicitor that Mr McGregor was being untruthful and that it was inconceivable that Mr McGregor had (as he claimed) been unaware of the payments to her (which she sometimes had made direct to her daughter’s bank account to save time) and of her bills for phone, TV and petrol.  The business was a small one and the bank statements went direct to Mr McGregor who also had an accountant check everything and prepare annual accounts.

The solicitor contacted us and asked us to prepare a report based on an examination of the prosecution evidence (amounting to over 1,200 pages) and Beatrix’s responses.


Our involvement

We provided a fee quotation to enable the solicitor to obtain a prior authority from the Legal Aid Agency.  We also, at this initial stage, wrote to the solicitor outlining the sort of further documentary evidence which would assist us if it were available and indicating that, in our experience of other small businesses, allegations of theft by trusted members of staff were not a rarity and that this indicated that all too often in practice business owners failed to exercise sensible supervision over book-keepers and others with control over company monies.

When we examined the prosecution exhibits we found amongst them copies of emails which had apparently routinely been sent by Beatrix to Mr McGregor each week setting out the payments she was making out of the business accounts, and the monies received from customers.  The listed payments included staff wages and payments to Beatrix (in relation to which she had submitted sequentially numbered invoices as she was technically self-employed).

But whilst the emails showed one weekly payment to Beatrix, she was typically taking a dozen or more payments per month.  Often more than one payment to Beatrix referred to payment of the same invoice.  Sometimes the same invoice had been paid out of both of the two company bank accounts.  So although the amount of any one payment was not unreasonable the number of these payments and their total value was clearly inconsistent with the information which Beatrix was emailing to Mr McGregor.

We reported that we were simply unable to say what had happened to the cash withdrawn from the company bank accounts as there was no evidence beyond the contrasting assertions of Beatrix and Mr McGregor.

However the prosecution estimate of the amount of ‘wages’ legitimately due to Beatrix was, in our view, a significant underestimate.  The prosecution figure was based on £85 per week whereas the emails clearly showed payments of up to £175 per week to Beatrix (of which Mr McGregor must have been aware and which he had, by implication, approved).  Taking that into account the prosecution figure of the amount stolen was, in our view, overstated by £10,490.

Attached to our expert witness report were schedules detailing the amounts paid from the company bank accounts to Beatrix and members of her family, the amounts reported as paid to her on her emails to Mr McGregor, and the cash withdrawals from the bank accounts.


The outcome

The solicitor discussed our report with Beatrix.  After thinking it over for a few days Beatrix decided to plead guilty at Liverpool Crown Court to theft and fraud in relation to Mr McGregor’s company (as well as the benefit fraud offences).  She was given a suspended prison sentence, ordered to do 180 hours unpaid work and required to pay compensation of £1,200 to Mr McGregor’s company.

That is undoubtedly a better result than she would have obtained had she gone to trial and been convicted.


N.B. Names and certain other details have been changed to protect client confidentiality.

(Note: This article relates to a criminal prosecution in England and Wales. There are a large number of additional issues which could be relevant to criminal proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation – counts left to lie on the file

In confiscation proceedings counts left to lie on the file may have unwelcome implications which had not been foreseen by the defendant and his legal team at an earlier stage.  What are these implications?


Counts left to lie on the file

in any subsequent confiscation proceedings there is, I venture to suggest, a very important difference between these two methods of disposal

When a defendant has been charged with more than one offence he may wish to offer a guilty plea to some of the counts he faces if the remaining counts against him will not be pursued.  Those counts which are not pursued might be dealt with in one of two ways.  The prosecution could state in court that they propose to offer no evidence on those counts.  The judge will then formally record ‘not guilty’ verdicts in relation to them.

Alternatively the prosecution could invite the judge to agree that the counts are to be ‘left to lie on the file’ without any verdict being entered.  That means that the prosecution may only revive and proceed on those counts in wholly exceptional circumstances.

So it would appear that, in practical terms, the outcome is the same – those allegations have been disposed of and the defendant will no longer face prosecution for them.  But in any subsequent confiscation proceedings there is, I venture to suggest, a very important difference between these two methods of disposal.

Case law

Case law indicates that where a defendant has been formally acquitted of a count it is not open to the prosecution to suggest, in confiscation proceedings based on his conviction on one or more other counts on the same indictment, that the defendant was in fact guilty of that offence.  To do so would imply that the court has ‘got it wrong’ so far as the acquittal is concerned.

it is not open to the state to undermine the effect of the acquittal

In R (on the application of Adams) v Secretary of State for Justice [2011] UKSC 18 the Supreme Court held at paragraph [111] “the principle that is applied is that it is not open to the state to undermine the effect of the acquittal”.  Similarly the Supreme Court held in Gale v Serious Organised Crime Agency [2011] UKSC 49 at paragraph [115] “in all proceedings following an acquittal the court should be astute to ensure that nothing that it says or decides is calculated to cast the least doubt upon the correctness of the acquittal”.

In this respect the UK Supreme Court judgments are consistent with the decision of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Geerings v The Netherlands [2007] ECHR 191.  In the Geerings case a confiscation order made against Mr Geerings following his conviction of certain offences was assessed, in part, on the basis that he was in fact also guilty of other offences of which he had been acquitted in the same proceedings.  The European Court held that this had violated his Article 6(2) right to the presumption of innocence.

in contrast . . . the defendant may find that the burden will rest upon him

In contrast where counts have been left to ‘lie on the file’ I suggest that it is open to the prosecutor, in confiscation proceedings, to suggest that the defendant is in fact guilty of those offences.  Indeed in a ‘criminal lifestyle‘ confiscation the defendant may find that the burden will rest upon him to satisfy the court, on the balance of probabilities, that he is not guilty of those offences.

Simon’s case

An example from a recent case in which I was involved may underline the point.  The defendant, let’s call him Simon, ran a plant hire business.  His premises were raided by the police who examined 91 items of plant which he hired out.  They found 39 of these items to have been stolen property.  Simon was charged with 39 counts of ‘handling’ under s22 Theft Act 1968 on the basis that he knew or believed these items to be stolen.  Simon denied that he knew or believed the items to be stolen but, shortly before the matter came for trial, he pleaded guilty to 9 of the 39 counts and all parties agreed to the remaining 30 counts being left to ‘lie on the file’.

Simon was subsequently subject to confiscation on the basis that he had a ‘criminal lifestyle‘ having been convicted of more than 3 offences and having obtained from them a benefit of at least £5,000 (which was not disputed).  In the confiscation proceedings the prosecution asserted that the income generated from the hiring out of all 39 items was benefit of Simon’s criminal conduct.  The defence contended that the benefit should be assessed only by reference to the income from the hire of the 9 items in relation to which Simon had been convicted.

The judge entirely disbelieved and rejected Simon’s evidence

The judge heard oral evidence from Simon regarding his state of knowledge concerning the 30 items and also heard oral evidence from other witnesses.  The judge entirely disbelieved and rejected Simon’s evidence and based the confiscation order on the income generated from the hire of all 39 stolen items.

In approaching the matter in the way he did, the judge acted consistently with the recent Court of Appeal judgment in Bagnall v R [2012] EWCA Crim 677.  It was open to the judge to apply the statutory assumptions which, in his judgment, Simon had failed to rebut in relation to income generated from the hire of all 39 stolen items.  This did not, in law, amount to a finding that Simon was guilty of offences of which he had not been convicted (although it had the same effect in terms of the confiscation order).

In a jury trial the burden would have been upon the prosecution to prove, to the criminal standard, that Simon knew or believed that each of the items of plant was stolen

No doubt the outcome of the confiscation would have been significantly different if Simon had been formally acquitted of the 30 counts to which he did not plead guilty.  Alternatively, had Simon insisted, insofar as he was able, that he face trial before a jury on the 30 counts (and, in my view at least, a defendant has a right to a fair trial on all the counts with which he has been charged) it is possible that he would have been acquitted on some or all of those counts.  In a jury trial the burden would have been upon the prosecution to prove, to the criminal standard, that Simon knew or believed that each of the items of plant was stolen.  As things turned out, acquittals on any of the counts would have led to a better outcome for Simon in the confiscation proceedings.

So, for a defendant and his legal team, agreeing to counts being left to ‘lie on the file’ may be a less attractive option than it appears.


Mortgage fraud – but by whom?

Police lamp copyright David Winch 2014Ted Kelly was no stranger to the inside of a police station or the Crown Court dock. He had had many brushes with the law, but being charged with financial crime was a new experience.

Ted’s home had been searched by the police more than once in the course of an investigation into serious crimes and the police had found documents concerning a buy-to-let property in Liverpool which Ted owned. A search at the English Land Registry turned up a mortgage from Borset Building Society and enquiries there revealed the mortgage application had been submitted online by a mortgage broker, Adrian Broke.

Attached to the application were two years accounts for the business prepared by Peter Addit & Co

The mortgage application indicated that Ted was a self-employed joiner, trading as Kelly’s Joinery Services. Attached to the application were two years accounts for the business, prepared by Peter Addit & Co – members of a leading professional body of accountants, and signed both by Mr Addit and by Ted.

Ted’s self-employment came as a surprise to the police (who understood him to make his living from less legitimate activities) and, sure enough, a check with HM Revenue & Customs revealed that they had no knowledge of Ted’s self employment either.



“Gotcha!” said DC Lund to himself. To assemble his case DC Lund interviewed Adrian Broke and Peter Addit concerning their dealings with Ted

“Gotcha!” said DC Lund to himself. To assemble his case DC Lund interviewed Adrian Broke and Peter Addit concerning their dealings with Ted. They confirmed that Ted had approached Mr Addit in June 2008 to have accounts prepared – just a simple Profit & Loss Account. Mr Addit had not been instructed to do any tax work for Ted. He assumed Ted wanted the accounts for his bank or was dealing with his tax himself. Ted produced his passport and driving licence (which Mr Addit photocopied) and had handed Mr Addit a list of work done and expenses from which Mr Addit had prepared the P & L account. The fee was less than £200.

The following year Ted had returned with a similar schedule and Mr Addit had produced the 2009 accounts for him then and there, for a similar fee. The net profit each year shown on the accounts was in the region of £40,000. At the June 2009 meeting there had been some discussion of a property purchase and Mr Addit had recommended the services of Mr Broke the mortgage broker (who was also a client of his).

Mr Broke confirmed that in July 2009 Ted had contacted him about obtaining a mortgage to buy a home for himself. He had produced his passport and driving licence (which Mr Broke photocopied) and two years accounts prepared by Mr Addit. Mr Broke had carried out a fact find and then recommended a mortgage from Borset Building Society and some life and critical illness policies as well as property and contents insurance. Ted had accepted these recommendations and Mr Broke had completed the mortgage application online based on the information and accounts Ted had provided.

Armed with these facts DC Lund arrested Ted, interviewed him, and then charged him with fraud by false representation in that he had dishonestly made a false representation to Adrian Broke that the accounts were true, with the intention of obtaining the mortgage advance, contrary to s2 Fraud Act 2006.


Ted’s version of events

But Ted’s version of events was very different. He said he had never met Mr Addit, had never instructed him to prepare any accounts, and had never been self employed as a joiner

But Ted’s version of events was very different. He said he had never met Mr Addit, had never instructed him to prepare any accounts, and had never been self employed as a joiner. He had been wanting to buy a property in Liverpool to let out and his cousin had recommended the mortgage broker Mr Broke. Ted went to see Mr Broke. Although Ted had no regular employment Mr Broke had assured him this would be no problem. All that would be needed would be his passport and driving licence. Ted took these to a second meeting with Mr Broke who asked him to sign numerous documents – all of which he signed, without reading, where Mr Broke pointed. Mr Broke also took photocopies of his passport and driving licence.

Shortly afterwards the mortgage came through and Ted was able to purchase the property and let it out to tenants. The rental income more than covered the mortgage payments (which he always paid on time). Ted also found he was paying for some insurances by direct debit, and he cancelled those.

When the matter came to court DC Lund, Mr Broke and Mr Addit were called by the prosecution and gave evidence.



Under cross-examination Mr Broke confirmed that Mr Addit was his accountant, that he and Mr Addit referred clients to each other from time to time (but without any referral fee) and that he knew Ted’s cousin. He also confirmed that as a result of Ted’s property purchase he would receive payments from Borset Building Society, from the conveyancing solicitor whom he had recommended to Ted, and from the insurance companies. Had the mortgage not gone ahead he would have received none of these payments, which he estimated at less than £2,000 in total. But he confirmed the statement he had given to DC Lund.

Mr Addit also confirmed the evidence in the statement he had given DC Lund. But under cross-examination he accepted that he had at first given the police a statement saying Ted had approached him initially for two years accounts to be prepared. That had been based on a mistaken recollection which he had corrected in his second statement. Mr Addit had not asked for, nor seen, any bills or receipts in relation to Ted’s self employment. He had relied on the schedule presented to him by Ted. He had returned the schedule to Ted and not kept a copy. Mr Addit had believed the accounts to be true based on the information supplied to him by Ted.

Mr Addit had recently moved to a new computerised system and had not retained his diaries for 2008 and 2009

Indeed since Ted was no longer a client his files had been destroyed. Mr Addit had not sent Ted an engagement letter. Mr Addit had recently moved to a new computerised system and had not retained his diaries for 2008 and 2009. He had not contacted HM Revenue & Customs in relation to Ted’s self employment as he was not instructed to deal with Ted’s tax affairs.

It transpired that Ted had not paid Mr Addit for the preparation of either the 2008 or the 2009 accounts. In fact Mr Addit had not invoiced Ted for these accounts as he expected Ted to pay without an invoice. The only documentary evidence which Mr Addit held in relation to his dealings with Ted was the photocopies he had of Ted’s passport and driving licence (the same documents which Mr Broke had copied in July 2009).

He accepted that the date on which the 2008 accounts were shown as having been signed in June 2008 was a Sunday. He said the actual date of signing would be within a day or two of that.

The accounts were not prepared for tax purposes. The word “Allowable” which appeared against certain expense headings was on his standard word processing template for such accounts.

He denied however that he had backdated the accounts, or that he had prepared them on the instructions of Mr Broke rather than Ted, or that Mr Broke had paid him anything in connection with Ted’s accounts.


The computer files

Immediately after Mr Addit had completed his evidence DC Lund asked him if he would still have on his computer system the Microsoft Word files for the 2008 and 2009 accounts. Mr Addit thought he could have and that he would be able to access them there and then using a Wi-Fi link from the court building.

The Word files for both the 2008 and 2009 accounts showed a ‘creation date’ on the evening before the day on which Mr Broke had filed Ted’s online mortgage application in July 2009

When he did so it was discovered that the Word files for both the 2008 and 2009 accounts showed a ‘creation date’ on the evening before the day on which Mr Broke had filed Ted’s online mortgage application in July 2009. The creation dates were approximately two minutes apart.  These files also each had a later ‘modified date’.  In one case the modified date was approximately two hours later the same evening.

DC Lund passed this information to prosecuting counsel, and then it was passed on to defence counsel and the judge.

Mr Addit was recalled to the witness box and questioned about this. He maintained that in fact the accounts had been prepared earlier and that perhaps what was now being seen were Word files for later copies of the accounts. He denied that the later ‘modified dates’ showed that these were in fact the original working copies of the accounts.


No case to answer

That brought the prosecution case to a close. Whilst the jury were excluded defence counsel asked the judge to dismiss the case on the basis that Ted had ‘no case to answer’.

The judge agreed that the trial should be halted and Ted should be acquitted

The judge agreed that the trial should be halted and Ted should be acquitted. The case against him had become so weak and tenuous that the jury could not possibly find that Ted had dishonestly represented to Mr Broke that the accounts prepared by Mr Addit were true – which was the basis on which Ted had been charged.  What’s more there was a danger that the jury might convict Ted because they did NOT believe the prosecution witnesses and that was a possibility the judge was unwilling to countenance.

So, as things turned out, it was not necessary to hear any evidence from the defence witnesses (including myself).  In any event the matters and issues which I had drawn to the attention of the defence team – and which had been set out in an expert witness forensic accountant’s report filed at court in advance of the trial – had largely been aired before the court already by defence counsel in his cross-examination of Mr Addit.


N.B.  Names and certain other details have been changed to protect client confidentiality.

Criminal lifestyle confiscation – a case study

Brian considered himself unlucky.  Some friends of his had come under police observation.  He had been having a coffee with them in Starbucks in Wolverhampton one morning when the police swooped and arrested everyone, Brian included.

Then the police searched the car in which Brian and some of his friends had driven to Starbucks – finding £24,000 in a bag in the boot.  The police also searched the homes of all the persons arrested.  Brian had had £2,000 worth of cocaine (with an 8% purity) in a kitchen drawer at home, which he had foolishly agreed to look after for a friend.  There was also another £10,000 in cash at Brian’s house and a couple of valuable watches.  The police seized the drugs, the cash, the watches and Brian’s mobile phone.

Brian and the others from Starbucks were charged with a serious drugs conspiracy involving an organised criminal enterprise importing and supplying drugs over a wide region.

But the cash in Brian’s house was not contaminated with drugs and there were no suspicious messages on Brian’s mobile phone.  Although the alleged conspirators had been under observation for some time, Brian had not been observed with any of them prior to that morning at Starbucks.  Brian had no criminal record.

Brian was advised to plead guilty to possession of the cocaine with intent to supply

Brian was advised to plead guilty to possession of the cocaine found in his kitchen with intent to supply and possession of the cash found in the car boot (possession of criminal property).  The serious conspiracy charges against him were dropped.  He was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.

Confiscation proceedings followed.  Although he had no previous criminal convictions Brian was deemed to have a ‘criminal lifestyle’ for confiscation purposes because he had been convicted of the cocaine offence.

The prosecution had obtained copies of Brian’s bank statements, from the two banks he had accounts with, going back to the ‘relevant day’ (which was 6 years prior to the date on which Brian had been charged) and his tax records from HMRC.  They also had Land Registry records showing the purchase of his home, the price he had paid and the mortgages on it (Brian had taken out a second mortgage because his business was struggling).

A prosecutor’s s16(3) PoCA 2002 statement was prepared which, to Brian’s amazement, showed Brian’s benefit from criminal conduct to be over £500,000 and his available amount to be over £100,000.  Brian told his solicitors that he had, in truth, had no benefit from crime and he was broke.  Now he was faced with a demand for £500,000 with the threat of an additional 5 year default sentence for non-payment.

Attached to the prosecutor’s statement were, amongst other things, spreadsheets listing all the deposits in Brian’s bank accounts since the relevant day (both cash and cheques), a valuation of the two watches of £900 in total, and a calculation of the value his home based on the price he had paid for it some years ago uplifted by a national house prices index.

Brian’s solicitors contacted me for help.  I submitted a fee quotation to them for them to obtain a prior authority from the Legal Services Commission

Brian’s solicitors contacted me for help.  I submitted a fee quotation to them for them to obtain a prior authority from the Legal Services Commission.  I asked them to obtain from the prosecution electronic copies of the spreadsheets of bank credits and to obtain a professional valuation of Brian’s home.  I also asked them to obtain from Brian his explanations of the credits to his bank accounts (with any supporting evidence he could provide) and a letter of authority to enable me to obtain further detailed information from his accountant (who had prepared his tax returns).

Brian had been a self-employed electrician.  It transpired that his accountants had prepared tax returns for him based on limited business records and Brian’s verbal explanations concerning his earnings and expenditures.  They had seen his bank statements for one of his accounts but not the other.  They had not prepared annual Balance Sheets as these were not required for tax purposes.

Brian told his solicitors that not all his earnings had been banked in the account for which he had shown the statements to his accountants, but he had told them of all his earnings (or at least he had given them a fair estimate of them).  He sometimes had to juggle money between the two banks to keep within overdraft limits and have sufficient to pay his mortgage and other direct debits.  So he would take cash out from one bank and put cash in the other.  On these occasions the dates and amounts of cash drawn and deposited would be more or less the same, but the amounts drawn and deposited might not be identical and, although the transactions would be within a few days of each other, they would probably not be on the same day.

Also he had done some work as an electrician for builders who had paid him cash in hand and not bothered to go through the cumbersome CIS (construction industry scheme) tax procedures.  Those builders would probably not want to come forward and give evidence of this in court.

Brian was confident that he could ‘prove’ at least three-quarters of the deposits were legitimate.

Nevertheless Brian confirmed that none of the bank deposits were drug related and he was confident that he could ‘prove’ at least three-quarters of them were legitimate.

The watches seized by the police had belonged to his late father and were of considerable sentimental value.  Brian did not think the watches would have been listed in his father’s probate papers.

I obtained further details from Brian’s accountants, checked the prosecution’s s16(3) statement figures and looked for evidence of deposits in one bank account possibly being linked to withdrawals from another.

I prepared a report bringing together all the defence evidence in relation to benefit and available amount.  The property valuation had shown that Brian’s home was in negative equity – the current value being far below that indicated by the national house prices index used by the prosecution.

When the matter came to be heard I attended the Crown Court ready to give evidence.  However, as is usual in such cases, negotiations got underway that morning with both sides exploring the possibility of reaching an agreement that would avoid a lengthy hearing before the judge.

The Crown were persuaded to considerably reduce their benefit figure

The Crown were persuaded to considerably reduce their benefit figure to recognise that cheque deposits were unlikely to be proceeds of crime and that at least part of the cash was likely to be from Brian’s work as an electrician.  They accepted that there was no evidence of tax evasion as Brian had given his accountants information in addition to the bank statements on the one account.

The Crown also accepted, to a limited extent, that some cash deposits could be cash drawn from the other bank.  As a result Brian’s benefit figure would be reduced to £180,000.

In relation to Brian’s available amount the Crown accepted that there was no equity in Brian’s house and they agreed that Brian’s mother could purchase the watches back (at their expert’s valuation).

Brian accepted, for the purposes of confiscation, that his available amount included the cash seized from the car and from his house (which was already in police possession), the balances in his bank accounts and the market value of the watches and his car.  In total this was nearly £45,000.  This would be the amount Brian would be ordered to pay.

Brian was not happy with the outcome – but he did recognise that things could have been a great deal worse!

A brief hearing followed in which the judge was invited to make a confiscation order in the agreed figures.  Brian was given 6 months to pay (although in practice he signed over the cash already held by the police at the conclusion of the hearing, meaning there was only £11,000 left to pay) with a 15 month sentence in default (although in practice that would be reduced pro-rata to reflect the £34,000 already effectively paid).

Brian was not happy with the outcome – but he did recognise that things could have been a great deal worse!


Names, locations and certain other details have been changed to protect the identities of those involved.

A club treasurer called to account for the money

It is often difficult to find someone willing to act as honorary treasurer for a local club or voluntary organisation and Upper Slagbank’s Over 60s Club was no exception.  When the current treasurer died the club cast about for a new ‘volunteer’.  The accounts had got into a bit of a mess and accounting procedures, if you can call them that, were a bit lax – but probably no more so than many other similar organisations up and down the country.  Finally Peter was persuaded to take on the responsibility, although he was only in his 50s and held no professional qualifications.

He used to work in a bank, so he knew about money, and he was well respected in the community.

Peter was a local man who now ran his own recruitment agency for top-flight executives.  He used to work in a bank, so he knew about money, and he was well respected in the community.  But life was about to take a turn for the worse for Peter.  A few months after he became treasurer his home was repossessed by the mortgage company (business had actually not been going too well for a while) and his wife, surprised to find herself out on the street, left him.

Vera, the club chairwoman, asked him if in the circumstances he no longer wished to be treasurer, but Peter said it gave him some continuity and normality in a turbulent time and he was willing to continue.

The club held several fund-raising events each year and had income from membership fees and contributions to the costs of excursions.  Its expenditure was on the outings themselves and the costs of speakers, entertainers, room hire and food and drink for evening meetings.  The club also made donations to good causes.  The management team (for want of a better description) met from time to time and there was the annual AGM.

Peter produced some figures on individual fund-raising events for the management team meetings and annual accounts for the club AGM, which were accepted without demur.  The figures took the form of an income and expenditure account resulting in a net surplus or deficit.  They did not show the bank balances or cash on hand.

Peter explained that due to some confusion between the two club bank accounts some cheques had bounced, but he was sorting it out.

After about 18 months William, the club’s President, began to hear grumblings in the village about club bills not being paid.  He had a word with Peter who explained that due to some confusion between the two club bank accounts some cheques had bounced, but Peter was sorting it out.

But things went from bad to worse until finally Vera and William demanded that Peter surrender all the books and records.  A Tesco carrier bag full of jumbled receipts, bills, bank statements, cheque books and some cash was left on William’s doorstep next morning.

William went through these in a meticulous manner, preparing his own schedules of club receipts and payments over the period for which Peter had been their treasurer.  Vera compared the bank statements to the accounts which Peter had presented to management meetings dealing with the fund-raising events.  They were horrified to find that the club’s finances were in a most unhealthy state.  On numerous occasions cash had been drawn from the bank – even in August when the club had no activities!  In fact the only time no cash was being drawn from the bank seemed to be when there was no cash in the bank to be drawn.

Profits from fund-raising events had not been paid into the bank.

Amongst the receipts in the bag were two post office chits for the purchase of Peter’s TV licences – bought with club cheques.

The police were contacted and Vera and William accused Peter of stealing over £7,000 from the club.

The police were contacted and Vera and William made statements.  William handed over the schedules he had prepared.  Vera and William accused Peter of stealing over £7,000 from the club.

Following a police investigation Peter was charged with the theft of cash drawn from the bank on over 30 occasions, theft of profits from the fund-raising events which had not been banked, and fraud in relation to the cheques used to purchase the TV licences.

Peter denied any wrongdoing.  He admitted the records were in a muddle but he vigorously denied any thefts.  Indeed on occasion he had found it necessary to put his hand into his own pocket to meet club bills.  It was because the club owed him money that he had used the club cheques to buy his TV licences.

There had been a lot of cash expenditures on this and that and he was not always given receipts.  Because of the cash expenditures, which arose unpredictably, he did not bank the surpluses from the fund-raising events but retained a tin of club cash.  He did bank ‘surplus’ cash from time to time.

He had not kept a cash book (and neither had the previous treasurer).  The records had been in a mess when he first received them and, to his regret, he had muddled along without ever really getting a ‘grip’ on things.

I was instructed by Peter’s lawyers to see if the evidence did support the theft and fraud charges.

It seemed to me that there was evidence to show substantial cash expenditures and that the fact that the surpluses from individual fund-raising events had not been banked separately did not necessarily indicate those surpluses had been stolen.

In the absence of a cash book it was not clear how cash drawn from the bank had been spent.

In the absence of a cash book it was not clear how cash drawn from the bank had been spent.  However it did seem, based on the annual accounts presented to the AGM by Peter, that he would have to have drawn at least some cash from the bank to pay those expenses which had not been paid by cheque.

It was not unreasonable to suppose that some of those expenses had needed to be paid in August, although there were no club activities that month.

William had prepared two sets of schedules.  One set based on the bank statements, the other set based on the receipts in the carrier bag.  There was at least one bona fide expenditure on the bank statement schedule which was not reflected on the other schedule – presumably because there was no receipt for it in the carrier bag.

Without a cash book it was not possible to exclude the possibility that there were further bona fide expenditures, which had been paid by cash, and for which the receipt had been lost (or never obtained).

I could not be sure that any monies had been misappropriated.

In the circumstances I could not be sure that any monies had been misappropriated.  Nor could I be sure whether, overall, Peter owed money to the club or they owed money to Peter.  In other words, I did not think the evidence proved that any crime had been committed.

When the matter came to trial Peter was acquitted of all the charges against him.



Names, locations and certain other details have been changed to protect the identities of those involved.