Tag Archives: court of appeal

The Court’s discretion under s22 PoCA 2002

Crown Court judgeThe revisiting of old confiscation orders by prosecutors under section 22 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 is becoming more frequent but as yet few variations made under s22 have been appealed.

In stark contrast to the position when a confiscation order is first made, on a s22 revision the court – in other words the judge – has discretion concerning what variation to make to the original confiscation order and even whether to refuse to make any variation at all.

Section 22 is headed “Order made: reconsideration of available amount”.

 

Reconsideration of available amount

Section 22 PoCA 2002 empowers the Crown Court to vary an existing confiscation order made under s6 of the Act. In effect it allows the prosecution to apply to the court for a further payment to be required from the defendant under an existing confiscation order where his available amount has increased since the original order was made.

We are considering the position of a defendant who was made subject to a confiscation order, perhaps some years ago, and the court ruled then that he had a figure of benefit which was higher than his available amount. At that time the court would not have ordered him to pay the full amount of his benefit. Instead the amount he was then ordered to pay would have been restricted to his available amount at that time. The figures of the defendant’s benefit, available amount and the amount he was ordered to pay should all be spelled out in the original confiscation order.

Under s22 the prosecutor returns to court and asks it to consider the available amount which the defendant has now and to order him to pay a further amount now towards his total benefit.

But the court is required under s22(4) to do what “it believes is just”.  In the case of Padda v R [2013] EWCA 2330 the Court of Appeal noted, at para [45] that it is entirely appropriate on a s22 application for the court to bear in mind any “consideration which might properly be thought to affect the justice of the case”.

At the same time the court must have regard to the underlying policy behind confiscation – that offenders should be stripped of the benefit of their offending.

So could there ever be a case where the court would simply refuse the prosecution’s application to order the defendant to pay a further amount?

 

Mr Mundy’s case

Ian Mundy had been convicted in Cardiff Crown Court in 2008 of drugs offences (involving cocaine and cannabis) and money laundering.  He had been subject to confiscation with a benefit of £172,365 and an available amount of £9,275.  He was ordered to pay £9,275 and did so by 19 March 2009.

There was therefore an excess benefit of £163,090 which Mr Mundy had never been ordered to pay.

In 2016 or 2017 it came to the attention of prosecutors that the property owned by Mr Mundy (which had a negative equity in 2008) now had a positive value.  In addition Mr Mundy now had a car, a van and two motorcycles and had over £8,000 in bank accounts.  He seemed an ideal candidate for a s22 application.

A restraint order was obtained on 21 February 2017 and a s22 application was lodged on 26 May 2017.  The Crown sought a further payment of £29,791.  Mr Mundy disputed the Crown’s valuation of his assets and, following exchanges of documents, the Crown reduced its figure to £22,061.  Mr Mundy put the figure at only £2,561 arguing, amongst other things, that the monies in the bank accounts were to pay for various items and to support his family. He said the motorcycles had little value and were his hobby; the van was used for work; the car was jointly owned with a third party and the value placed on the property was excessive.

The application was heard on 13 September 2017.  The Crown Court judge refused to order that Mr Mundy pay any further amount.  The judge said, “I have read the application and the information in support of the application to make the order. I have also read the detailed response to the section 22 application in which the explanation is provided on behalf of the defendant, firstly, to the circumstances in which he acquired the various vehicles and also the circumstances and the use to which the savings which were gathered were to be put. I have absolutely no doubt that it would not be just in these circumstances to make the order under section 22 and I decline to do so.”

The Crown appealed.

 

The appeal

The Court of Appeal heard the case in January 2018, R v Mundy [2018] EWCA Crim 105.

On appeal the court noted that what was “just” required a consideration of what was “just” for the prosecution as well as for the defendant.  The court noted that the judge in the Crown Court had expressly referred to the public interest in confiscating the proceeds of crime.

The court considered that the judge’s reasoning had been rather too “abbreviated”.  At para [33] it remarked “If the judge had gone through the list and given brief reasons for rejecting each element in it, and if he had added that there must be an element of proportionality in the disposition of court resources, then we doubt there could have been any proper basis for challenging the order.  Judges are entitled summarily to dismiss applications that they regard as being substantially without merit, but the Crown had spent considerable time and effort preparing for the application and both it and the public were entitled to know why the judge rejected the application.”

But the Court of Appeal went on to conclude that the Crown Court judge had a discretion to refuse to vary the order and that on the facts it was properly open to him to do so in Mr Mundy’s case.  The court dismissed the prosecution’s appeal.

It follows that – at least for now – Mr Mundy is not required to pay anything further under the confiscation order.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Challenging a s22 PoCA 2002 confiscation reconsideration

Crown Court judgeThe revisiting of old confiscation orders by prosecutors under section 22 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 is becoming more frequent.

This blog post considers the provisions of s22 and ways in which prosecution applications under s22 may be challenged by the defendant.

Section 22 is headed “Order made: reconsideration of available amount”.

WARNING – THIS IS A LENGTHY BLOG POST – APPROXIMATELY 3,000 WORDS

  1. Reconsideration of available amount
  2. The legal ‘trigger’
  3. “Makes” v “varies”
  4. Inflation
  5. The burden of proof
  6. What is ‘just’?
  7. The prosecutor’s s22 application and witness statement
  8. Restraint orders and investigation powers
  9. Time limit
  10. Challenges
  11. Default sentence
  12. Due date for payment & interest
  13. Second revisit
  14. Appeals
  15. Conclusion
  16. Contacting us

 

Reconsideration of available amount

Section 22 PoCA 2002 empowers the Crown Court to vary an existing confiscation order made under s6 of the Act.  In effect it allows the prosecution to apply to the court for a further payment to be required from the defendant under an existing confiscation order where his available amount has increased since the original order was made.

This blog article does not consider variations to confiscation orders made under earlier legislation, such as the Criminal Justice Act 1988, Drug Trafficking Act 1994 or Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986.  Different rules apply under those Acts.

Nor are we considering the position of a person who has a new conviction and a new confiscation order is being made as a result of that.

We are considering the situation of a defendant who was made subject to a confiscation order, perhaps some years ago, at which time the court ruled that he had a figure of benefit which was higher than his available amount.  At that time the court would not have ordered him to pay the full amount of his benefit.  Instead the amount he was then ordered to pay would have been restricted to his available amount at that time.  The figures of the defendant’s benefit, available amount and the amount he was ordered to pay should all be spelled out in the original confiscation order.

Under s22 the prosecutor asks the court to consider the available amount which the defendant has now and to order him to pay a further amount now towards his total benefit.

Let’s consider Jim’s case.  Jim was subject to a confiscation order in September 2008.  That order says that Jim’s benefit was £100,000 and his available amount was £500.  Jim was ordered to pay £500 which he has paid.  Today Jim owns a house with his wife.  The house is worth £200,000 but there is a mortgage of £180,000.  So Jim’s half share is worth £10,000.  Jim also has a car worth £6,000 but no other assets, so Jim’s total available amount today is £16,000.

The prosecution can ask the court under s22 to order Jim to pay a further £16,000 (or some other figure) by making a variation to the confiscation order made in September 2008, requiring a further payment now.

 

The legal ‘trigger’

The legal ‘trigger’ for a s22 variation is in subsection 22(4):-

If the amount found under the new calculation exceeds the relevant amount the court may vary the order by substituting for the amount required to be paid such amount as –

(a) it believes is just, but

(b) does not exceed the amount found as the defendant’s benefit from the conduct concerned“.

The ‘trigger’ is in the first phrase – “If the amount found under the new calculation exceeds the relevant amount“.  What that means is that a s22 variation can only be made where the defendant’s available amount now exceeds the available amount shown on the original confiscation order.

In Jim’s case it obviously does (£16,000 is more than £500) and so the court can consider making an order requiring a further payment from Jim now.

 

“Makes” v “varies”

Under s22 a court may “vary” an existing confiscation order – but it does not “make” a confiscation order.  The legislation does not regard a variation to amount to the ‘making’ of an order.  This can be seen most clearly in the differing provisions regarding default sentence when a court “makes” an order – see s35 – and when a court “varies” an order – see s39.

It follows that an order which has been varied under s22 is an order which was ‘made’ at the time of the original confiscation hearing, not at the time of the variation.

 

Inflation

In these cases we can be looking back at figures determined by the court some years ago.  Because of this s22 recognises the effect of inflation by subsection 22(7) which says:-

In deciding under this section whether one amount exceeds another the court must take account of any change in the value of money.

This is done by using the RPIJ index published by the Office for National Statistics.  [UPDATE: Since the article was written courts have moved on to using CPIH rather than RPIJ for ‘inflation’ uplifts.]

In Jim’s case the confiscation order was made in September 2008 when RPIJ stood at 209.8.  The latest figure (May 2016) is 240.1.

So uplifting Jim’s benefit of £100,000 it becomes equivalent to £114,442 and his original available amount of £500 becomes equivalent to £572 today.

So, strictly speaking, the trigger condition is whether £16,000 exceeds £572 – which of course it does.

The prosecutor will most likely ask the court to vary the original confiscation order so that Jim’s amount to pay is £16,500 – that is the £500 which he has already paid plus a further £16,000 payable now.

The prosecutor will point out that this amount (which when adjusted for changes in the value of money is equivalent to £16,572) is less than Jim’s total benefit (which when adjusted for changes in the value of money is £114,442).

 

The burden of proof

An application under s22 is made by the prosecutor (or an enforcement receiver appointed under s50).  It would appear that the burden of proof is on the applicant to provide information enabling the court to make a “new calculation” of the defendant’s available amount.

This contrasts with the position when the confiscation order was originally made (at which time the burden was on the defendant to show that his available amount was less than his benefit, by virtue of s7).

 

What is ‘just’?

Under s22(4) the court is to vary the amount to be paid to an amount which the court “believes is just.”  What does that mean?

I suggest that part of the process of deciding what is ‘just’ involves looking back at the figure of benefit previously decided by the court and considering whether that figure, in the light of subsequent legal developments, is either faulty because it was based on a misunderstanding of the law (as may have arisen, for example, in a case of mortgage fraud), or is an amount which it would now be considered disproportionate to order the defendant to pay in full (as may be the case, for example, where stolen property has been returned to its owner).

That will involve some detailed reconsideration of the basis on which the original confiscation order was made, which may involve re-examination of the basis of prosecution’s assertions regarding benefit which were set out in the original s16 statement insofar as the court accepted those assertions when making the confiscation order.

Where, in the light of the relevant law as it is understood today, the defendant would not now be ordered to pay an amount based on the whole of the benefit shown in the original confiscation order then, I suggest, it would not be ‘just’ to order a defendant to pay that amount now under s22.

So it is necessary, in my view, to consider the impact of case law such as R v Waya [2012] UKSC 51 (proportionality and confiscation, mortgage fraud), R v Ahmad [2014] UKSC 36  (recovery from co-defendants), R v Harvey [2015] UKSC 73 (VAT and confiscation) and Boyle Transport (Northern Ireland) Ltd v R [2016] EWCA Crim 19 (piercing the corporate veil) on the understanding of confiscation law, when considering an application under s22.

This does not mean that the defendant is appealing against the benefit figure in the original confiscation order.  He is asking the court to consider what it would be ‘just’ for him to be ordered to pay now under s22.

[UPDATE: The case of R v Cole [2018] EWCA Crim 888 (24 April 2018) in the Court of Appeal concerned a s22 application in a mortgage fraud case. The original confiscation order had been made before the Supreme Court decision in Waya and the benefit included the amount of the mortgage advance.  The Court of Appeal restricted the further amount ordered to be paid under s22 in line with what the original benefit figure would have been had a ‘Waya-compliant’ approach been followed when the confiscation order was first made.  In other words the Court of Appeal did take into account the decision in Waya when making the s22 variation.]

More broadly the court appears to have a discretion under s22 to consider what amount, in all the circumstances, it believes it would be ‘just’ for the defendant to be ordered to pay.

The Court of Appeal has held in the case of Padda v R [2013] EWCA Crim 2330, “In that context, it is entirely appropriate for a court to consider such matters as the amount outstanding, the additional amount which might now be available for a further payment, the length of time since the original confiscation order was made, the impact on the Defendant of any further payment contemplated and indeed any other consideration which might properly be thought to affect the justice of the case.

When the court is considering a variation to a confiscation order under s22 then – once the trigger condition has been satisfied – the court may order the defendant to pay a further amount of any size, large or small, so long as the total which the defendant is required to pay under the confiscation order (adjusted for changes in the value of money) does not exceed the total of his benefit (adjusted for changes in the value of money).

Strictly speaking, the only relevance of the defendant’s current available amount is in relation to determining whether the trigger condition is satisfied.  In practice however the prosecutor is likely to suggest that it would be just for the defendant to be ordered to pay an additional amount which is the lesser of (a) his current available amount, and (b) the maximum which the defendant could be ordered to pay in relation to his total benefit.

 

The prosecutor’s s22 application and witness statement

Section 22 does not make express provision for a prosecutor’s statement in support of an application for a variation of a confiscation order.  There are no express provisions akin to those found in s16.

Equally there are no express provisions akin to sections 17, 18 and 18A requiring statements or information from the defendant or third parties.

Nevertheless the prosecutor (or enforcement receiver) will need to make a written application to the court and the likelihood is that he will append to that a witness statement which will be in some respects similar to a s16 statement.  Rule 33.16 Criminal Procedure Rules 2015 applies to the service of the application and any supporting witness statement.  It is likely that the defendant will want to respond to the application by way of a statement of his own before the court hearing.

 

Restraint orders and investigation powers

The prosecutor is entitled to apply for a restraint order, under s40(6), when a s22 application is to be made or has been made.

Where the court makes a restraint order it may also require the subject of the restraint order to supply information under s41(7) for the purpose of ensuring that the restraint order is effective.

However it appears that the investigation powers under Part 8 of PoCA 2002 are not available to a prosecutor applying for a s22 variation, because a s22 application does not appear to involve a ‘confiscation investigation’ as defined by s341(1).

There could be some debate as to whether a s22 investigation is an investigation into “the extent or whereabouts of realisable property available for satisfying a confiscation order made” in respect of the defendant, referred to in s341(1)(c).  My own view is that “satisfying a confiscation order made” refers to full payment of the amount ordered to be paid under the original confiscation order which has been made, rather than referring to satisfying a variation of that confiscation order which is (perhaps) to be made.  If that is the case, and if the original confiscation order has been paid in full, then the s22 investigation would, in my view at least, not fall within s341(1) with the result that the Part 8 investigation powers would not be available to a financial investigator acting for the prosecutor.

[UPDATE: The recent Criminal Finances Bill includes – at clause 27 – a proposed amendment to s341(1)(c) intended to make the investigation powers of Part 8 available to a prosecutor applying for a s22 variation.]

 

Time limit

There is no statutory time limit.  This means that a s22 application may be made many years after the original confiscation order was made.

 

Challenges

A s22 application may be subject to a variety of challenges by the defendant.

The defendant may assert that the trigger condition has not been satisfied.  Take the example of Bert who was subject to a confiscation order made in February 2012.  In that order his benefit was held to be £90,000 and his available amount was £40,000.  Bert was ordered to pay £40,000 which he has paid.  The prosecutor now finds that Bert has £25,000 in a bank account in his sole name.  Bert has no other assets, so his available amount now is £25,000.

The RPIJ in February 2012 was 225.8.  The latest figure (May 2016) is 240.1.

So uplifting Bert’s benefit of £90,000 it becomes equivalent to £95,699 and his original available amount of £40,000 becomes equivalent to £42,533 today.

So, strictly speaking the trigger condition is whether £25,000 exceeds £42,533 – which of course it does not.

It follows that the trigger condition is not satisfied and the court should not order Bert to pay a further amount now under s22.

A second area of challenge concerns the defendant’s available amount.  Consider Charles who, according to Land Registry records, is the sole legal owner of Rose Cottage.  The prosecutor values Rose Cottage at £250,000.  There is an outstanding mortgage of £150,000.  The prosecutor therefore asserts that Charles has an available amount of £100,000.

Charles may challenge this on the basis that he is not the sole beneficial owner of Rose Cottage and that the current value of Rose Cottage is less than £250,000.  That challenge may have a bearing on whether the trigger condition is satisfied and on the value of Charles’ current available amount – with obvious implications for any amount which Charles may be ordered to pay now as a result of the s22 application.

A third area of challenge concerns what might loosely be described as ‘change of law’.  In 2005 Peter was convicted of mortgage fraud in that he had purchased a house with a mortgage of £100,000 which he had obtained by giving false information on his mortgage application.  Peter was subject to confiscation with a benefit of £100,000 (the amount of the mortgage advance) and an available amount of £20,000.  He was ordered to pay £20,000 which he has paid.  Peter now has £50,000 in a bank account in his sole name but no other assets (so his available amount is £50,000).  He is subject to a s22 application.

Peter may challenge the application on the basis that it would not be ‘just’ to order him to pay £50,000 under s22 as, on a proper and just interpretation of the legal position, he did not ‘obtain’ the mortgage advance and, in any event, the mortgage advance has since been fully repaid to the lender.

The court would then have to consider what further sum, if any, it would be ‘just’ to order Peter to pay under the confiscation order.  That may involve consideration of the price for which Peter ultimately sold the mortgaged property.

A fourth possible area of challenge concerns prosecution delay and Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights.  Consider the case of Derek who was subject to a confiscation order in 2006.  The court then found he had a benefit of £175,000 and an available amount of £25,000.  He was ordered to pay £25,000 which he has paid.  In 2011 the prosecution discovered that Derek was the sole owner of a property worth £200,000 which he had inherited from his father who died in 2009.  No action was taken by the prosecution at the time.  The file was reviewed in 2016 and an application was then made under s22.

Derek may challenge the application on the basis that it infringes his Article 6(1) rights in that the prosecutor has not brought the s22 application to court “within a reasonable time”.

Fifthly, a s22 application may be challenged on the basis that, taking everything into consideration, it would be simply unjust to order the defendant to make any further payment now – or that it would be unjust to require him to pay the full amount requested by the prosecution.  It might be argued, for example, that it would be just for the defendant to be ordered an amount based on his bank balance but not any part of the value of the equity in his home or the value of assets he uses in his legitimate business.  However such an argument would have to overcome the clear legislative policy in favour of maximising the recovery of the proceeds of crime, even from legitimately acquired assets.

There may be other bases on which a s22 application may be challenged.

 

Default sentence

The provisions of s22 permit the court to vary the amount to be paid under the confiscation order, but do not expressly authorise the court to vary the original default sentence (which will have been based on the original amount payable).

Section 35 authorises the court to set a default sentence when it “makes a confiscation order”, not when it varies one.  However s39 authorises the court to vary the default sentences in the circumstances detailed in that section.

One of the trigger conditions in s39 is that a confiscation order has been varied under s22 and the effect of the variation is to vary the maximum period of a default sentence applicable in relation to the order under s139(4) Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.

Unfortunately when s35 was amended by s10 Serious Crime Act 2015 corresponding amendments to s39 were not made.  The effect appears to be that the court can vary the default term in accordance with the table of default terms in certain circumstances, but only in accordance with the default terms set out in s139(4) Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.  These are the default terms which applied to confiscation orders made before 1 June 2015.

In other words, when considering a default term in the context of a s22 variation it is as if the changes to default sentences made by the Serious Crime Act 2015 had never happened.

 

Due date for payment & interest

Strictly speaking, s22 does not authorise the court to vary the due date for payment.  Under s11 this is closely tied to the date on which the confiscation order is “made” (not the date on which it is varied under s22).  Under s12 the defendant must pay interest on any amount which is not paid when it is required to be paid.

However it would appear to be a nonsense to charge interest, backdated to the date on which the confiscation order was originally made, on an additional amount.  Such an interest charge might be considered to infringe the defendant’s rights under Article 1 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights.

 

Second revisit

After a confiscation order has been varied under s22 is it possible to revisit it again at a later date?  The short answer is ‘Yes’.

However on a subsequent revisit the ‘trigger’ condition will be interpreted as comparing the defendant’s current available amount with his available amount as determined on the most recent occasion on which an application was made under s22.

 

Appeals

It seems clear that a defendant can appeal against a s22 variation where he considers the variation to have been wrong in principle or manifestly excessive (see Padda referred to above).

On the other hand, it does not appear that a prosecutor is able to appeal against the amount by which the court decides to vary a confiscation order on a s22 application, or a decision not to make any variation – but he is able to make a fresh application under s22 at a later date.

 

Conclusion

There are a number of matters which will need to be carefully considered by prosecution and defence in connection with a prosecutor’s application under s22 for reconsideration of a defendant’s available amount.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation & proportionality

Scales of justiceSince the UK Supreme Court decision in R v Waya [2012] UKSC 51 the issue of proportionality in confiscation has been exercising legal minds in England & Wales.

As a direct consequence of that judgment, in 2015 the UK Parliament amended s6(5) Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 by adding at the end of the subsection the words, “Paragraph (b) applies only if, or to the extent that, it would not be disproportionate to require the defendant to pay the recoverable amount”.

But what does this mean in practice?

 

The 5 steps to making a confiscation order

One can now view the Crown Court process at a confiscation hearing (in a simplified way) as involving a 5 step process resulting in the confiscation order.

  1. Identify and evaluate the defendant’s ‘benefit’ in accordance with s76 (taking into consideration as appropriate the valuation provisions of sections 79 & 80 and making where applicable the assumptions in s10),
  2. Evaluate, if possible, the defendant’s ‘available amount’ in accordance with s9 (taking into account the provisions of sections 77 to 81),
  3. Determine which of (1) and (2) is the lower sum, this sum is called the ‘recoverable amount’, s7,
  4. Consider whether a confiscation order requiring the convicted defendant to pay the ‘recoverable amount’ would be disproportionate, s6(5),
  5. If a confiscation order requiring payment of the ‘recoverable amount’ would not be disproportionate make a confiscation order in the ‘recoverable amount’; but if such an order would be disproportionate then make a confiscation order requiring payment of the highest amount which would not be disproportionate.

 

What is meant by ‘disproportionate’?

The need to avoid a disproportionate confiscation order springs from Article 1 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, often referred to as ‘A1P1’.  This in effect requires that there must be a reasonable relationship of proportionality between the means employed by the State in the deprivation of property as a form of penalty and the legitimate aim which is sought to be realised by the deprivation.

To put this another way, legislation should not operate more harshly in removing assets from the convicted defendant than is required by the legitimate aims of that legislation.  The legislation must strike a fair balance between the demands of the general interest of the community and the requirements of the protection of the individual defendant’s fundamental rights.

A confiscation order which is so harsh as to fail to maintain a fair balance between these competing demands and requirements will be disproportionate.

 

What is proportionate?

The UK Supreme Court in Waya gave examples of what it would regard as proportionate in the context of confiscation.

They said that a legitimate, and proportionate, confiscation order may have one or more of three effects:

      (a) it may require the defendant to pay the whole of a sum which he has obtained jointly with others;
      (b) it may require several defendants each to pay a sum which has been obtained, successively, by each of them, as where one defendant pays another for criminal property;
      (c) it may require a defendant to pay the whole of a sum which he has obtained by crime without enabling him to set off expenses of the crime.

It follows from this that a confiscation order will not be regarded by the courts as disproportionate simply because it requires a convicted defendant to pay more than the sum which he would have been required to pay to put him back in the financial position he would now be in if he had not committed his crime.

Although the expression ‘pay back’ is sometimes used in connection with confiscation, a confiscation order can require much more than that.

 

Examples of ‘disproportionate’ orders

The UK Supreme Court however did indicate that where the benefit obtained by the defendant has been wholly restored to the loser a confiscation order which required him to pay the same sum again does not achieve the object of the legislation and so would be disproportionate.

Subsequent decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal have extended that to other situations which the courts have considered to be analogous to restoration of property to the loser.

 

Loose ends

The ramifications of the Supreme Court judgment in the Waya case in situations considered to be analogous to restoration of property to the loser are still being worked through in courts up and down England & Wales.  I expect to return to this subject in a future blog article.  I have already written about the parallel issue of the making of both confiscation and compensation orders in respect of the same benefit (‘Confiscation and compensation – double trouble?‘).

But there is another issue arising which as yet has not been addressed, as far as I am aware, either by the courts or by Parliament.

Where a confiscation order is limited by the defendant’s ‘available amount’ it is an order in that amount which the court has to consider proportionate or disproportionate.  If an order in the sum of the ‘available amount’ is proportionate it may still be the case that an order based on the amount of the defendant’s ‘benefit’ would have been disproportionate.

If and when the prosecution seeks a variation of the original confiscation order under s22, perhaps because the defendant has acquired further assets since the date of the original order, the Crown Court will again be obliged not to infringe A1P1.  In consequence the Crown Court on hearing an application under s22 will be required to consider whether the variation it plans to make to the original confiscation order would make the revised order disproportionate.  That will involve careful consideration of the original benefit and any restoration of that benefit to the loser, as well as consideration afresh of the defendant’s current ‘available amount’.  Ultimately under s22(4)(a) the court is obliged to amend the amount required to be paid to such amount as “it believes is just”.  I have written previously on the subject of s22 (‘PoCA section 22 – unfit for purpose?‘).

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation & compensation – double trouble?

doppelgangerFor some years courts have wrestled with the issue of compensation & confiscation.  Should the Crown Court make both a compensation order (in favour of the victim of the crime) & a confiscation order (effectively in favour of the Crown) in respect of the same benefit obtained by a convicted defendant?

The Court of Appeal recently considered the issue again in the case of Davenport v R [2015] EWCA Crim 1731.

 

Statute law

The power to make a compensation order in the Crown Court derives from s130 Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000.  The power to make a confiscation order in the Crown Court derives from s6 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.  The legislation clearly envisages that the Crown Court may make both a compensation order and a confiscation order when dealing with an offence.

In particular s13 PoCA 2002 (as amended by s6 Serious Crime Act 2015 with effect from 1 June 2015) defines a “priority order” in subsection (3A) to include a compensation order and sets out what the court is to do where a court is making both a confiscation order and one or more priority orders against the same person in the same proceedings and the court believes the person will not have sufficient means to satisfy all of those orders in full.

In these circumstances the court must direct that so much of the amount payable under the priority order(s) as it specifies is to be paid out of any sums recovered under the confiscation order; and the amount it specifies must be the amount it believes will not be recoverable because of the insufficiency of the person’s means, subsection (6).

The other types of priority order now identified in subsection (3A) include a surcharge order under s161A Criminal Justice Act 2003, an unlawful profit order under s4 Prevention of Social Housing Fraud Act 2013 and a forfeiture order under s23 or s23A Terrorism Act 2000.  It is anticipated that a slavery and trafficking reparation order under s8 Modern Slavery Act 2015 will be added to the list of priority orders in due course.

 

Case Law

The Court of Appeal have considered the making of both compensation orders and confiscation orders against the same person in the same proceedings in the cases of Jawad v R [2013] EWCA Crim 644 and of Davenport v R [2015] EWCA Crim 1731.  Both of these judgments post-date the UK Supreme Court decision in the case of R v Waya [2012] UKSC 51 which highlighted the importance of proportionality in the making of confiscation orders and resulted in the amendment to s6(5)(b) PoCA 2002.

 

The issue

The problem is that whilst the statute law makes clear that it is possible for the court to make a compensation order and a confiscation order against the same person in the same proceedings – and sets out what the court should do if the offender cannot pay both orders in full, the statute gives no guidance as to what the court should do if the offender can pay both.

Since the decision in Waya and the amendment to s6(5)(b) would it now be disproportionate, and therefore wrong, for the court to make a compensation order and a confiscation order in respect of the same benefit obtained from the same offence against an offender who appears to be in a position in which he can pay both?

This was the question addressed in Jawad and in Davenport.

The Court of Appeal considered in Jawad that it generally will be disproportionate to require the defendant to pay for a second time money which he has fully restored to the loser – and an order for a lesser sum which excludes the double counting ought generally to be the right order.  What will bring disproportion, said the Court, is the certainty of double payment.  If it remains uncertain whether the loser will be repaid, a POCA confiscation order which includes the sum in question (and therefore requires the same benefit to be recovered twice – by compensation & confiscation orders) will not ordinarily be disproportionate, concluded the Court of Appeal.

In Davenport the Court of Appeal appears to have taken a slightly more relaxed approach.  It held that mathematical certainty of restitution is not required.  The court should approach matters in a practical and realistic way in deciding whether restitution is assured.  Restitution to the victims in the future is capable of being properly assessed as assured, depending on the particular circumstances, notwithstanding that such restitution will not be immediate, or almost immediate, at the time of the confiscation hearing.  Obviously the longer the time frame the greater force there will be to an argument that restitution is not assured: but a prospective period of delay in realisation is not of itself necessarily a conclusive reason for proceeding to make a combination of such orders without adjusting the amount of the confiscation order.

Whilst a defendant who is truly intent on making restitution in full to his victims ordinarily should be expected to have arranged such restitution prior to the date of the confiscation hearing there may sometimes be cases where that is not possible.  If, in such a case, the court has firm and evidence-based grounds for believing that restitution may nevertheless be forthcoming, albeit that cannot be taken as “assured” at the time of the hearing, the court has power in its discretion to order an adjournment to enable matters to be ascertained.

But, said the Court of Appeal, each case must be decided on its own facts and circumstances.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

S10A PoCA 2002 determinations – appeals & reconsideration

Scales of justiceOnce the Crown Court has made a ‘determination’ for the purposes of confiscation of the extent of a convicted defendant’s interest in an asset can that ‘determination’ be altered on an appeal or reconsideration?

The short answer is ‘Yes’.  A previous article ‘Crown Court section 10A determinations in confiscation‘ considered the new power to make a ‘determination’ introduced by s1 Serious Crime Act 2015 which inserted new s10A into the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

This article goes on to consider appeal & reconsideration of s10A determinations.

 

Appeal

A s10A determination may be appealed either by the prosecutor or by a person whom the Court of Appeal thinks is or may be a person holding an interest in the asset in question, but different eligibility rules apply, see s3 SCA 2015.

Whoever wishes to appeal to the Court of Appeal will not be permitted to do so where a receiver has already been appointed under s50 PoCA 2002, or where the Court of Appeal believes that an application is to be made by the prosecutor for the appointment of a receiver, or where such an application has been made but has not yet been determined.

In addition where the intended appeal is to be made by a person who claims to hold an interest in the asset the appeal must be on the basis that either the person was not given a reasonable opportunity to make representations when the determination was made, or that giving effect to the determination would result in a serious risk of injustice to that person, or both.

But what is meant by “a serious risk of injustice”?  I would suggest that this is not restricted to a risk of serious injustice – what is serious is the risk, not the injustice.  When considering the meaning of the same phrase in earlier confiscation legislation the Court of Appeal in the case of R v Benjafield [2000] EWCA Crim 86 held, at paragraph [41.4]: “any real as opposed to a fanciful risk of injustice can be appropriately described as serious”.

It is doubtful whether an error which had an insignificant impact on the outcome would be regarded as creating an “injustice”.  However it may prove to be the case that the need to show “a serious risk of injustice” will not be an especially difficult hurdle for a potential appellant.

On hearing an appeal against a determination the Court of Appeal may confirm the determination, or make such order as it believes is appropriate.  The decision of the Court of Appeal may be further appealed to the Supreme Court.

 

Reconsideration in the Crown Court

When the Crown Court is appointing a receiver under s50 it may confer various powers upon the receiver including (but not limited to) power to manage or realise any realisable assets, and the court may may order a person holding an interest in a realisable asset to make payment to the receiver in respect of a beneficial interest in that asset held by the convicted defendant or the recipient of a tainted gift, see s51(2) & (6).

Where a s10A determination in respect of an asset has not previously been made the Crown Court must not exercise those powers without giving any person holding an interest in the asset a reasonable opportunity to make representations to it, s51(8).

Where a s10A determination in respect of an asset has previously been made that will bind the Crown Court when appointing the receiver, unless the Crown Court finds on an application by a person holding an interest in the asset that either the person was not given a reasonable opportunity to make representations when the determination was made and has not appealed against the determination, or that giving effect to the determination would result in a serious risk of injustice to that person, or both – see s51(8B) inserted by s4 SCA 2015.

The effect therefore is that the s10A determination can be undone by the Crown Court when it is appointing a receiver (unless that determination has already been subject to an appeal to the Court of Appeal).

 

The combined effect

The combined effect of these provisions is that a person with an interest in the asset will have an opportunity either to appeal to the Court of Appeal against the determination or an opportunity to ask the Crown Court to reconsider the determination (but cannot do both).

In either case the person with the interest will have to satisfy the court that either he was not given a reasonable opportunity to make representations when the determination was made, or that giving effect to the determination would result in a serious risk of injustice to him, or both.

He will need to do that on or before the appointment of a receiver under s50.

It remains the case that the powers of the receiver must be exercised with a view to allowing a person other than the defendant or a recipient of a tainted gift to retain or recover the value of any interest held by him, see s69(3)(a).

A s10A determination is a determination of the defendant’s interest in the asset rather than a determination of the interests of others but clearly has a relevance to issues arising under s69(3)(a).

 

Conclusion

The existence of these opportunities to challenge the previous ‘conclusive’ s10A determination may be thought to go a long way to nullify the perceived attractions of inviting the Crown Court to make a s10A PoCA 2002 determination when making a confiscation order.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

UK Supreme Court rules on money laundering arrangements

Supreme Court logoThe UK Supreme Court recently ruled on the law relating to prosecutions for entering into, or becoming concerned in, an arrangement which facilitates the acquisition, retention, use or control of criminal property for, or on behalf of, another person – contrary to s328 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

The case arose as a result of the actions of a fraudster, referred to as ‘B’.

Shortly before commencing his fraud the defendant, referred to as ‘H’, opened two bank accounts and handed control of them to ‘B’ who then used them in connection with his frauds.  ‘B’ conned unsuspecting members of the public into making payments into these bank accounts (for services which in truth were non-existent).

The prosecution case was that ‘H’ must have known or at least suspected that ‘B’ had some criminal purpose even if he was not aware of the details of the con.  ‘B’ was convicted of fraud.  ‘H’ was charged with becoming concerned in an arrangement contrary to s328 PoCA 2002.

The Supreme Court was required to consider whether, in the circumstances alleged, ‘H’ could be guilty of a s328 offence – R v GH [2015] UKSC 24 (22 April 2015).

The Supreme Court broke the issue down into four key questions.  In addressing those questions it overturned some decisions of the courts below.

 

1  Must the property be ‘criminal property’ before the arrangement operates on it?

Counsel for the prosecution submitted to the Supreme Court that the same conduct could both cause property to become criminal and simultaneously constitute the offence charged under s328.  He made the same submission in relation to sections 327 and 329, correctly recognising that the three sections have to be construed coherently.

So, he submitted, a thief who steals “legitimate” property is necessarily at the same time guilty of “acquiring criminal property” contrary to s329.

The Supreme Court rejected that view, holding that it failed to recognise the necessary distinction between a person who acquires criminal property and one who acquires legitimate property by a criminal act or for a criminal purpose.

Sections 327, 328 and 329 are aptly described as “parasitic” offences because they are predicated on the commission of another offence which has yielded proceeds which then become the subject of a money laundering offence.

The Supreme Court therefore approved the decision of the Court of Appeal in an earlier case R v Geary [2010] EWCA Crim 1925 that to say that s328 extends to property which was originally legitimate but became criminal only as a result of carrying out the arrangement is to stretch the language of the section beyond its proper limits.  I have discussed the Geary case more fully in an earlier article on this blog.

However, for example, a thief who steals legitimate property might then commit a s329 money laundering offence by his possession or use of that property after his acquisition of it.

In practice such a thief should normally face a charge of theft rather than one of money laundering.  But the legal point that he may also be guilty of a money laundering offence is an important one because of the obligation on banks & others in the ‘regulated sector’ to report suspicions of money laundering under s330.

 

2  Must the ‘criminal property’ exist before the defendant joins the arrangement?

The Supreme Court agreed with the decision of the Court of Appeal in holding that it does not matter whether criminal property existed when the arrangement was first hatched.  What matters is that the property should be criminal property at a time when the arrangement operates on it.

It should be noted that the Supreme Court did not hold it to be necessary that the property should be criminal property at the time when the arrangement commences to operate on it.

The offence is complete when the arrangement becomes one which facilitates the acquisition, retention, use or control of criminal property for, or on behalf of, another person and the defendant knows or suspects this to be the case.

 

3  Were the monies ‘criminal property’ before being paid into the defendant’s bank account?

Counsel for the prosecution made a somewhat technical submission to the Supreme Court that the monies banked were criminal property at the time of payment because they represented a chose in action, namely the obligation of the purchasers of the supposed services to pay for them.

The Supreme Court were unimpressed by this submission, holding that there was a stark absence of material before the court to substantiate a case of this nature.

However the court did not close the door on such an argument being successfully presented in a future case.

 

4  Was the actus reus of the offence committed on the facts of the case?

Looking at the substance of the matter, the money paid by the victims into the accounts was lawful money at the moment at which it was paid into those accounts.  It was therefore not a case of the account holder acquiring criminal property from the victims.

But by the arrangement the respondent also facilitated the retention, use and control of the money by or on behalf of ‘B’.  Did the arrangement regarding the facilitation of the retention, use and control of the money fall foul of s328 on the basis that it was criminal property at that stage, since it was the proceeds of a fraud perpetrated on the victims?

In this case the character of the money did change on being paid into the defendant’s accounts.  It was lawful property in the hands of the victims at the moment when they paid it into the defendant’s accounts.  But it then became criminal property in the hands of ‘B’, not by reason of the arrangement made between ‘B’ and the defendant, but by reason of the fact that it was obtained through fraud perpetrated by ‘B’ on the victims.

There was a crucial difference therefore between this case and the situation in Geary (in which the arrangement itself had been the reason that the property in question became criminal property).

The Supreme Court (overturning the decision of the Court of Appeal) held that there was no artificiality in recognising that change in character of the money, and that it would be appropriate to regard the defendant as entering into or becoming concerned in an arrangement to retain criminal property for the benefit of another.

It was the retention, use & control of the monies after they had been paid into the bank accounts as the result of a fraud, under the bank account arrangement made earlier between ‘B’ & ‘H’, which could properly form the basis of a conviction of ‘H’ under s328.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to prosecutions under the provisions of Part 7 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s trial in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Serious Crime Act 2015 amendments to confiscation law

ER 1 sigThe Serious Crime Act 2015 has received the Royal Assent.  The new Act amends the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in relation to confiscation (and makes numerous other amendments to criminal law).

The changes referred to in this article came into force on 1 June 2015 (see reg 3 Serious Crime Act 2015 (Commencement No. 1) Regulations 2015) except where otherwise noted.

 

Proportionality

One relatively late amendment to the Act was to introduce into statute law, by an addition to s6(5) PoCA 2002, the proportionality requirement identified by the Supreme Court in R v Waya [2012] UKSC 51.  The words “Paragraph (b) applies only if, or to the extent that, it would not be disproportionate to require the defendant to pay the recoverable amount” have been added to that subsection.

However there is no amendment to reflect the more recent Supreme Court decision in R v Ahmad [2014] UKSC 36 concerning double recovery of jointly obtained benefit.

 

Major reforms

The major reforms fall into six areas: – restraint orders; money belonging to a person subject to a confiscation order; determination of third party interests in assets; time to pay; default sentence for non-payment and other powers to ensure compliance; and powers of investigation.

This article deals with the reforms to confiscation law applicable in England & Wales.  The Act also introduces amendments to the confiscation law operating in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

 

Restraint orders

As noted in my article “Restraint orders under PoCA 2002“, under the old law the applicant for the restraint order had to show that he had reasonable cause to believe that a benefit had been obtained from criminal conduct, s40(2).  Now s11 of the new Act amends s40(2) so that an applicant is only be required to show that there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a benefit has been obtained from criminal conduct.  That obviously is a lesser hurdle for the applicant.

But interestingly the Act does not amend s69(2) which forms the basis of the view that ordinarily a restraint order should be made only if there is genuinely a risk that assets will be dissipated.  That approach has itself militated against the early obtaining of a restraint order in some cases.

Additional changes to sections 40 to 42 of the 2002 Act in relation to restraint orders have been made in regard to: (a) the prosecution making reports to the court on the progress of a criminal investigation where a restraint order has been made on that basis; (b) the continuation of a restraint order where a conviction is quashed and a re-trial is ordered; and (c) restrictions on foreign travel by a person subject to a restraint order.  Further changes (which were included in the Policing and Crime Act 2009) relating to: (i) outstanding legal aid contributions due from the subject of a restraint order; and (ii) the retention of seized property (inserting a new section 41A), have also been brought into effect on 1 June 2015.

 

Money belonging to a person subject to a confiscation order

Amendments to s67 & s67A make it easier for a court to order that money held in a bank account (or similar account) should be paid into court where the money belongs to a person subject to a confiscation order, s14.  That applies when the account is in the name of the defendant or where the money has previously been seized by the authorities.

Previously this power could only be exercised where the money was subject to a restraint order and where the period allowed for payment under the confiscation order had elapsed.  These two conditions are omitted under the amendments.

 

Determination of third party interests in assets

Prior to the coming into effect of the new Act a person other than the defendant who claims an interest in property in which the defendant also has an interest, played no part in the confiscation proceedings until the enforcement stage (that is, after the confiscation order had been made).  However the extent of the defendant’s interest in the property (and hence also the extent of the third party’s interest in it) may have had a bearing on the defendant’s benefit (particularly where the ‘criminal lifestyle‘ assumptions have been triggered) and on his available amount.

In consequence at the enforcement stage third party claims on assets might need to be considered by the courts for the first time.  That could have the effect of delaying and, in some cases, frustrating enforcement of the confiscation order.

Under the new Act at the stage of making the confiscation order the Crown Court may make a ruling determining the defendant’s interest in property (in which a third party has, or may have, an interest) and such a determination would be conclusive in most circumstances, s10A PoCA 2002 inserted by s1 of the new Act.  Determinations would be subject to appeal to the Court of Appeal, s3.

In order to allow third party claims to be properly considered, the prosecutor must include in his s16 statement any relevant information known to him & the Crown Court, before making such a determination, would allow third parties to make representations to the court regarding their interests in the property in question.  Amendments are made to sections 16 & 18 PoCA 2002 and a new s18A is introduced by s2 of the new Act.

In the author’s view this change risks creating as many problems as it solves.  It will in many cases increase the complexity of confiscation proceedings.  It carries the risk of Crown Court judges making rulings in matters relating to issues of property law and family law in which they may have little experience.  Confiscation orders may be unjust where third parties realise too late that they ought to have been represented in confiscation proceedings in order to protect their own interests.

Whilst the government apparently anticipates that Crown Courts will exercise this power of determination only in straightforward cases, the author’s view is that an apparently straightforward case may prove to be more complex when further matters come to light after a determination has been made.

This may prove to be the most controversial of the reforms.

[UPDATE:  A more extensive article on s10A determinations may be found HERE.]

 

Time to pay

The new Act has halved the maximum time allowed for payment of a confiscation order and made explicit provision for parts of the total sum ordered to be paid to fall due earlier than other parts, s5.

Prior to 1 June 2015 a Crown Court could initially allow a defendant up to six months to pay.  A further six months, making a maximum of 12 months in all, could be allowed on a further application, s11 (as originally enacted)The new law has reduced the initial period to three months maximum, with a further three months available on application, making a maximum of six months in total.

Courts are also able to provide for earlier payment dates for part of the total sum – for example where the available amount comprises money in a bank account and an interest in a residential property the confiscation order could require payments from the bank account within, say, 14 days of the confiscation order with the balance due three months from the date of the order.

The practical effect of this proposal is to further limit the discretion of Crown Court judges to allow a defendant time to pay the confiscation order, with the result that interest and enforcement action will be triggered more quickly.

The Act substitutes a new s11 in PoCA 2002.

 

Default sentence for non-payment

The provisions applicable prior to 1 June 2015 are dealt with in my article “Confiscation – default sentence“.   The new Act amends s35 PoCA 2002, by s10 of the new Act, so the maximum default sentences will read as follows:

An amount not exceeding £10,000 6 months
An amount exceeding £10,000 but not exceeding £500,000 5 years
An amount exceeding £500,000 but not exceeding £1,000,000 7 years
An amount exceeding £1 million 14 years

Furthermore, where the confiscation order is made for an amount in excess of £10 million the usual provision allowing release at the half-way stage of a sentence will be disapplied.  This means that a person who is the subject of a confiscation order in excess of £10 million may be required to remain in prison for the full 14 years of a default sentence.  (This disapplication of early release applies where the default occurs on or after 1 June 2015 and so may apply to confiscation orders made before the new Act received the Royal Assent, s86(2).)

A fuller article considering the changes to default sentences can be found HERE.

A new power is provided for the Crown Court to make a ‘compliance order’ under s13A PoCA 2002 (subject to appeal under s13B).  These sections are inserted by s7 of the new Act.  A ‘compliance order’ is such order as the court “believes is appropriate for the purpose of ensuring that the confiscation order is effective”.

A compliance order might, for example, restrict a defendant’s ability to travel outside the UK.

 

Powers of investigation

Under previous legislation the investigation powers under Part 8, PoCA 2002 ceased to be available as soon as a confiscation order was made.   The new Act provides that these powers shall remain available in effect until the confiscation order is satisfied, s341 PoCA 2002 is amended by s38 of the new Act.  (Note – this provision came into force in England and Wales on 1 March 2016.)

 

Other changes on 1 June 2015

In addition to the changes being made to confiscation law under Part 2, Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 by the Serious Crime Act 2015, other amendments – made by the Policing & Crime Act 2009 and the Crime & Courts Act 2013 – have been brought into effect on 1 June 2015.  Further details of those changes can be found in a Home Office Circular issued on 22 May 2015.  These changes principally concern the search, seizure & forfeiture of property (including cash), applications to the Crown Court (rather than the High Court) for certain orders in relation to proceeds of crime, and payment of legal aid contributions from restrained funds.  New Codes of Practice were issued in March 2016.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation & legitimate businesses

Business officeDo recent English Court of Appeal decisions map out a new approach to confiscation when applied to legitimate businesses which have become tainted with criminality?

Has there been an evolution in the assessment of ‘benefit’ following the Supreme Court judgment in Waya?

Are the courts in certain circumstances now looking to confiscate only the profit from trading?

 

Payments received

Whilst one could describe drug trafficking as a ‘business’ as it involves trading in goods, it has long been the case – since the Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 in fact – that the gross receipts of such a ‘business’ are treated as ‘benefit’ for confiscation purposes.

Drug trafficking is of course a wholly criminal enterprise.  Prior to the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 confiscation in respect of drug trafficking was dealt with under a separate legislative regime which specified that the offender’s benefit was “any payments or other rewards received”.  That can only mean the gross receipts.

 

Property obtained

But the wording of the confiscation provisions in s71 Criminal Justice Act 1988, relating to non-drug crime, referred to property “obtained” as a result of or in connection with the offence.  Similar wording was adopted when the two different legislative regimes for confiscation were merged in PoCA 2002.  Is the notion of what an offender has “obtained” a more flexible one than what he has “received”?

Initially the PoCA 2002 formulation was considered, identically to the old drug crime wording, to refer to gross receipts.  For example the Court of Appeal in CPS Nottinghamshire v Rose [2008] EWCA Crim 239 at paragraph [67] said “it can safely be assumed that Parliament, in enacting the legislation, did not intend to weaken the application of the existing confiscation regime”.

The House of Lords in the case of CPS v Jennings [2008] UKHL 29 confirmed that “obtained” meant obtained, solely or jointly, by the offender himself & that a person may “obtain” property without it actually passing through his hands.  In R v May [2008] UKHL 28 it was said that a defendant “ordinarily obtains property if in law he owns it”.  In that sense the notion of what has been “obtained” may be wider than that which has been “received”.

But the House of Lords also recognised that a person may “receive” property without “obtaining” it – as in the case of a courier.

 

High water mark

Perhaps the case of Del Basso & Goodwin v R [2010] EWCA Crim 1119 might be regarded as a high water mark in the application of confiscation to legitimate business.  In that case the offenders operated a ‘park & ride’ business in contravention of an enforcement order.  There was no local authority planning permission allowing the use of the land in question for that purpose.  A confiscation order based on the gross receipts of the business was upheld by the Court of Appeal notwithstanding the acknowledged fact that in other respects the business was operated in a proper & lawful manner.

 

Scottish High Court case

But in a case involving the Weir Group PLC, a quoted company, the Scottish High Court took a very different line.  The Weir Group PLC paid an agreed figure of £13,945,962 in confiscation and a fine of £3m after pleading guilty to two charges of breaching UN sanctions in connection with a number of ‘Oil for Food’ programme contracts awarded between 2000 and 2002.  The company admitted breaching UN sanctions applicable at the time on doing business with Iraq which was then ruled by Saddam Hussein’s regime.

Under the relevant statute, s1(1) Proceeds of Crime Scotland Act 1995, the Scottish Court had discretion to make a confiscation order in “such sum as the court thinks fit”.  The Weir Group companies had secured 16 contracts, for which they were paid £34,340,204, by paying ‘kickbacks’ of £3,104,527. The confiscation order was for only £13,945,962. This included Weir’s gross profit of £9,414,283 from the contracts – plus the kickbacks of £3,104,527 and the fee of £1,427,152 paid to Weir’s agent in Iraq.

The confiscation order could have been for £20m more had the Scottish Court settled on the gross receipts as the appropriate figure for confiscation.

 

Three contrasting situations

Recent Court of Appeal decisions in England & Wales appear to differentiate between three contrasting situations.

The first is where a licence or other form of authorisation is mandatory when carrying on a particular trade or business activity but the absence of that licence does not render the trading itself illegal.  So, for example, in Sumal & Sons (Properties) Ltd v London Borough of Newham [2012] EWCA Crim 1840 the company was convicted of being the owner of a rented property without a licence contrary to s95(1) Housing Act 2004.

However the Court of Appeal found that the Housing Act did not prohibit the renting out of an unlicensed property & that the rent was legally recoverable from tenants even where the required licence had not been obtained.

That being the case, the rent was not received or obtained as a result of or in connection with the offence & so was not ‘benefit’ for confiscation purposes.

A similar result occurred in the case of Mr Singh who failed to obtain a licence under s1(1) Scrap Metal Dealer’s Act 1964, before he carried on business as a scrap metal dealer – see McDowell & Singh v The Queen [2015] EWCA Crim 173.  Again his trading activity was not itself prohibited due to the absence of a licence & therefore no ‘benefit’ for confiscation purposes arose from it.

The underlying trading was not itself an illegal activity, nor could it be said to have resulted from the criminal conduct.

Confiscation orders which had been made in these cases were quashed on appeal.

 

Illegitimate trading

At the other end of the scale we have trading activity which is itself illegal, being prohibited by law.  Obviously drug trafficking falls into this category but so too was the trading of a company controlled by Mr McDowell who was convicted of being knowingly concerned in the supply, delivery, transfer, acquisition or disposal of controlled goods with intent to evade the prohibition thereon, contrary to Article 9(2) Trade in Goods (Control) Order 2003.

The trading in question involved the delivery of aircraft and other military equipment from China to Ghana.  The Court of Appeal found the underlying transactions to be prohibited and unlawful.  Mr McDowell’s criminal offence was being concerned in the trading activity.  His ‘benefit’ for confiscation purposes was the gross amount received from that trading.

Intriguingly however the Court of Appeal added, “We were informed only that the company’s accounts revealed the gross profit made by the company in consequence of all its trading. In these circumstances, even if, in principle, the court had been prepared to entertain a submission that the appellant’s benefit was for a lesser sum than his receipts, he had manifestly failed to discharge the burden of proof.”

 

Legitimate trading resulting from criminality

But the Court of Appeal in McDowell suggests at paragraph [51] there is a middle ground – “In a case in which the underlying transactions producing the appellant’s receipts are lawful and not criminal, the cost of those transactions to the defendant may, on the grounds of proportionality, properly be treated as consideration given by the appellant for the benefit ‘obtained’. There may be no “loser” as contemplated by the Supreme Court in Waya and by the Vice President in Jawad, but the underlying principle is the same – the defendant has not gained by his conduct to the extent that he has given value for his receipts. Each case must be decided according to its particular facts.”

We are dealing here with the situation in which the defendant has committed an offence and that offence has resulted in trading activity which would not otherwise have occurred – but the underlying trading activity is not itself criminal conduct.

An earlier decision of the Court of Appeal had concerned a Mr Sale who had obtained contracts for his engineering company from Network Rail by bribing one of their employees, R v Sale [2013] EWCA Crim 1306.  The engineering work was properly performed and was, of itself, an entirely legal trading activity.

The Court of Appeal concluded that the amount to be confiscated was not the gross receipts of the company under the contracts but was the company profit plus the the pecuniary advantage gained by obtaining market share, excluding competitors, and saving on the costs of preparing proper tenders for the work.  The Court of Appeal held that, on grounds of proportionality & in the light of the Supreme Court decision in Waya, the amount ordered to be paid under the confiscation order ought to have been calculated on that basis.

In another case, R v Boughton Fox [2014] EWCA Crim 2940, the court had found that customers had been induced by dishonest misrepresentations to enter into legitimate leasing agreements upon terms which were, in the event, more onerous than had been represented to them.  The defendant’s company had received commission from the lessors on the signing of the lease agreements.  The defendant was convicted of conspiracy to defraud and was subject to a confiscation order.

The Court of Appeal, following Sale, concluded “that the benefit to the appellant might arguably be reflected as (1) the gross profit from the dishonest trading activity, (2) the increase in market value of the company, if any, represented by the dishonest trading activity with (3) an adjustment to represent the appellant’s 50% interest in the company”.

In the event however there was no information before the Court enabling it to assess the benefit in that way & it instead took Mr Boughton Fox’s benefit to be a proportion of the salary & dividends received by him over the period of the offending.

 

Conclusion

It appears that in the three contrasting situations the amount to be paid under a confiscation order may be based on (a) no benefit, (b) benefit equal to gross receipts, or (c) a figure based, on grounds of proportionality, on the gross profit from the resulting trading plus the value of any other advantages obtained (such as benefit from increased market share and cost savings).

An accountant might consider that the appropriate figure, instead of gross profit plus cost savings, should be the contribution which the trading in question makes to net profit, that is to say the relevant turnover net of associated variable costs.  That would be a better measure of what the business has gained by the additional sales.

Certainly in such cases a forensic accountant, such as myself, should be instructed to assist in quantifying the appropriate figure.

The key to differentiating the three situations is a careful analysis of the nature of the offence and the extent, if at all, to which it involves trading, or results in underlying trading, which is itself illegal.  Where the offence involves illegal trading, or results in trading which is itself illegal, then the benefit will be the gross amount received from that trading.

Where the offence does not involve trading but results in trading which itself is not illegal, then the expenses incurred in that trading are not expenses of the crime and may be treated, on grounds of proportionality, as consideration which may reduce the amount to be paid under the confiscation order.

Where the offence does not itself involve trading and the trading does not result from the offence, then that trading does not give rise to any benefit for confiscation purposes.

However there are undoubtedly some legal complexities inherent in this new approach particularly with regard to distinguishing, on the one hand, trading receipts from criminal activity and, on the other, trading receipts from legitimate activity resulting from criminal conduct.

It remains to be seen whether the Supreme Court will endorse this new approach when an appropriate case comes before it.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation – after-acquired property

Money imageUnpaid benefit from an old confiscation order may be pursued by the prosecution under s22 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 where the original order was made under s6 of the Act.  (A similar provision, differently worded, was included at s16 of the Drug Trafficking Act 1994 in relation to confiscation orders made under that Act.)

But how does s22 PoCA 2002 work and does it achieve the intended result?

 

The wording of s22

The wording of s22 initially appears complex and baffling.  To the best of the author’s knowledge there is no authoritative case law dealing with the detail of some of the provisions of this section.

The section is headed “Order made: reconsideration of available amount“.  It may be assumed that one of the objectives of s22 was to permit prosecutors to follow up benefit on old confiscation orders which the defendant had not previously been ordered to pay in consequence of his limited available amount at the time.

The intention, it may be presumed, was to permit the court, on an application by the prosecutor (or a receiver appointed under the Act), to make a further confiscation order when the convicted defendant had subsequently acquired additional assets (referred to sometimes as “after-acquired property”).  It is this general principle, rather than the detailed operation of the statutory provisions, which has been addressed in case law (see R v Tivnan [1998] EWCA Crim 1370Saggar, Re Drug Trafficing Act 1994 [2005] EWCA Civ 174, Peacock, Re [2012] UKSC 5 and Padda v R. [2013] EWCA Crim 2330).

But the wording of s22 does not refer to a further confiscation order – it refers to a variation of the original order and, potentially more significantly, it fails to take account of the payment already made by the convicted defendant when limiting the overall impact of the confiscation proceedings on him.  Furthermore the statutory test in relation to his current available amount is, in the author’s view at least, misconceived.

The wording of the section is appropriate to the case of a defendant who has not been ordered to pay any amount under the original confiscation order but does not correctly address the situation of a defendant who has made payment previously.  In consequence the section in practice may not have the intended outcome.  For a more detailed discussion of unresolved problems with the legislative wording of s22 see my article PoCA section 22 – unfit for purpose?

Perhaps the best way to explain some of the difficulties which can arise from the wording of this section is by a couple of illustrative worked examples.

 

Worked example – Edward

Edward is a convicted defendant who was consequently subject to a confiscation order under s6 PoCA 2002 in May 2006.  The order made then showed his benefit to be £500,000 and his available amount to be £200,000.  Edward was accordingly ordered to pay £200,000 and he paid this amount on time and in full.

In recent years Edward has operated a successful legitimate business and now (January 2015) has an available amount of £400,000.  The prosecution apply for an order under s22.

Under s22 the court will undertake an examination of Edward’s current available amount (referred to as the “new calculation”) and, if this exceeds the ‘relevant amount’, can order Edward to pay such amount as it believes is just, but does not exceed the amount found as the defendant’s benefit from the conduct concerned, see s22(4).

The ‘relevant amount’ is Edward’s available amount as previously determined by the court, s22(8).  Edward’s benefit from the conduct concerned is his benefit as previously determined by the court, s22(9).

But when deciding whether one amount exceeds another the court must take account of any change in the value of money, s22(7).

 

Change in the value of money

For the purpose of taking account of any change in the value of money we are going to use inflation index figures published by the Office for National Statistics known as RPIJ (which stands for Retail Prices Index Jevons).

(See the article Confiscation – which inflation index? for an explanation of the use of the RPIJ rather than the Retail Prices Index or any other measure of inflation.)

At the time the prosecutor’s s22 application in Edward’s case is being finalised (January 2015) the latest available figure for the RPIJ is that for November 2014.

Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that the RPIJ values (in Table 35a) were

May 2006 191.6 Date of confiscation order
November 2014 238.3 Latest available index

 

Calculating the uplifts

Edward’s available amount of £200,000 was determined by the court in May 2006 when the RPIJ was 191.6. The latest RPIJ is 238.3 so the uplift is

£200,000 x (238.3 – 191.6) / 191.6 = £48,747

So the equivalent available amount now, referred to in s22(4) as the ‘relevant amount’, is £248,747.

The £500,000 benefit of the offence was also determined by the court in May 2006 so by a similar computation the uplift to that benefit is

£500,000 x (238.3 – 191.6) / 191.6 = £121,868

So the equivalent benefit figure now is £621,868.

 

The court’s powers

We can now see that Edward’s current available amount of £400,000 does exceed the ‘relevant amount’ of £248,747.  So the court may order Edward to make a further payment, but this must not exceed £621,868 (Edward’s total benefit uplifted for changes in the value of money).

As Edward currently has an available amount of only £400,000 the court will presumably not order him to pay an amount in excess of that because that would contravene the spirit of s7 and would not be “just”.

However the defence may argue that an order for £400,000 would not be just because Edward has previously paid a confiscation order of £200,000 in respect of the same benefit.

The defence may argue that the new order should be limited to £300,000 or perhaps to £373,121.

The £300,000 is the amount of the benefit that was determined, but not ordered to be paid, by the court in May 2006 (that is the difference between the £500,000 benefit and £200,000 ordered to be paid at that time).

In the alternative, the defence may argue that the order should be limited to that £300,000 of unpaid benefit in May 2006 uplifted for changes in the value of money since that time.  The uplift of that amount may be calculated as

£300,000 x (238.3 – 191.6) / 191.6 = £73,121

So the equivalent unpaid benefit figure now is £373,121.

If the court were now to order Edward to pay a further £400,000 he will have been required to pay a total of £600,000 (including the £200,000 paid many years previously under the original order) in respect of a benefit of only £500,000.

Because the court has, under s22, a wide discretion to order payment of the amount it believes is just, the court may order Edward to pay any amount between nil and £400,000 (but subject always to an appeal to the Court of Appeal).

The court will in practice assume the usual powers to allow Edward time to pay and to set a default sentence (reflecting the new amount ordered to be paid) in the event of non-payment (although there is no express provision in s22 to vary the time to pay and default sentence in the original confiscation order).

 

Worked example – Stephen

Now let’s consider a second worked example. Stephen’s circumstances are identical to Edward’s in every way except that his available amount in May 2006 was £350,000.  Stephen was accordingly ordered to pay £350,000 and he paid this amount on time and in full.

The benefit that Stephen was not ordered to pay at the time was therefore £150,000.

Stephen’s available amount of £350,000 was determined by the court in May 2006 when the RPIJ was 191.6. The latest RPIJ is 238.3 so the uplift to that figure is

£350,000 x (238.3 – 191.6) / 191.6 = £85,308

So the equivalent available amount now, referred to in s22(4) as the ‘relevant amount’, is £435,308.

Since Stephen’s current available amount of £400,000 does not exceed the ‘relevant amount’ of £435,308 the condition in s22(4) is not met and the court cannot make any further order against Stephen.  The prosecutor’s application under s22 will fail on this occasion.

 

Unintended consequences

In the author’s view neither the possibility of a new order against Edward which would result in the total amounts confiscated from him exceeding the total amount of his benefit (when all amounts are uplifted for changes in the value of money), nor the impossibility of the court making any further order against Stephen when he has unpaid benefit on an old confiscation order and the means to pay it, appear to be the consequences likely to have been intended by parliament when s22 was legislated.

Section 22 was not discussed when the detailed provisions of the (then) Proceeds of Crime Bill were considered by a House of Commons committee as part of the normal legislative process, nor was there any debate on the section in the House of Lords (although subsections 8 & 9 were added to s22 at that late stage there was no debate).  Perhaps this section should now be revisited by parliament.

 

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales.  There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

A confiscation case study – the career fraudster

Books - copyright David Winch 2014On 16 June 2014 the Court of Appeal in London heard the appeal of Mr Sam Ernest against a confiscation order in the sum of £308,380 made against him at Kingston-upon-Thames Crown Court.  The Appeal Court judgment R v Ernest [2014] EWCA Crim 1312 makes interesting reading.

Mr Ernest purported to run a business as an events organiser.  He would claim to have contacts from whom he could obtain sought-after tickets to popular high profile events, such as Wimbledon, the London Olympics, rock concerts or film festivals, in return for money.

Mr Ernest sometimes provided the tickets for which he had been paid, but often he would not.  When tickets were not provided he would usually promise refunds – on some occasions refunds were given, but on others they were not.

 

The victims

His victims were in the main either wealthy people or organisations who could afford to pay substantial sums of money for prestige events, or men whom he had befriended or women with whom he entered into relationships.

One woman with whom he was having a relationship got a party of 18 people together, some from the USA, to attend events at the London Olympics.  She paid almost £4,000 to Mr Ernest.  He continued to promise that the tickets would arrive right up until after her friends had arrived in the UK.

In total Mr Ernest defrauded his victims of over £48,000.

 

The police investigation

Mr Ernest’s activities had first been reported to the police in 2009, but they took no action at that stage.  It was not until 2012, when a special team of police officers were investigating fraud associated with tickets for the London Olympics, that attention was focused on his activities.

On discovering that the police wished to speak to him, Mr Ernest prevaricated and would not agree to attend for interview.  No doubt this was in part because he was a United States citizen who had entered the UK on a six month tourist visa in 2005 and was an illegal over-stayer. His passport had expired in 2010.

However in December 2012 Mr Ernest pleaded guilty to 17 counts of fraud and was sentenced to 4 years imprisonment.  Confiscation proceedings followed.

 

The confiscation proceedings

Mr Ernest was subject to confiscation proceedings on the basis that he had a ‘criminal lifestyle‘ having been convicted in the same proceedings of more than 3 offences from which he had obtained a benefit and had, in aggregate, obtained a benefit of at least £5,000, s75 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

The Appeal Court judgment does not, of course, give a full history of the confiscation proceedings.  We do not know what was in the prosecution’s s16 statement or in Mr Ernest’s response.  We do know, however, that the confiscation went to a full hearing in the Crown Court which heard evidence from a Detective Constable Knowles and from Mr Ernest.

 

The prosecution assertions

DC Knowles referred to bank accounts held by a Ms Barbara Howell which had apparently been used by Mr Ernest (and by Ms Howell for legitimate purposes).  There was also a bank account in the name of J Bailey Morgan which apparently Mr Ernest controlled.  DC Knowles considered the movements on these bank accounts since the ‘relevant day’, which it was agreed was 29 August 2006 (six years prior to the date on which Mr Ernest had been charged).

DC Knowles calculated the amount of money in these accounts paid in by known victims together with all of the unexplained credits to the accounts, that is all the monies deposited during the relevant period other than those which represented Ms Howell’s legitimate earnings and funds. This figure came to £209,980. This figure included sums specifically identified as being monies paid into that account by persons identified as victims of Mr Ernest’s activities.

The prosecution invited the court to assume all these sums credited to the various bank accounts to be benefit of Mr Ernest’s general criminal conduct pursuant to s10(2).  Presumably to avoid risk of double counting the prosecution did not seek to assert, as benefit of particular criminal conduct, any additional benefit of the 17 offences of which Mr Ernest had been convicted.

However the prosecution did assert that a further assumed benefit arose, under s10(4), in respect of Mr Ernest’s day to day living expenses over the period since the ‘relevant day’.  These were estimated at £16,400 per year for 6 years, so £98,400 in total.  The prosecution accepted that to some extent Mr Ernest had been financially supported over this period by a succession of girlfriends but contended that, even so, he would have incurred this £98,400 expenditure himself.

In consequence, the prosecution’s total benefit figure was £308,380.  The prosecution apparently did not accept that Mr Ernest’s ‘available amount’ would be less than his benefit.

 

The defence evidence

Mr Ernest asserted that on at least some occasions he had supplied tickets for which he had been paid and on other occasions he had made refunds to customers.  So it would not be correct, in his view, to treat the entirety of the sums banked as benefit.  He also asserted that he had no assets available and no hidden assets.

However the defence produced no books and records of the business and no report of a forensic accountant, nor did the defence produce documentary evidence of Mr Ernest’s current ‘available amount’.  The defence relied upon the oral evidence of Mr Ernest.

 

The judgment in the Crown Court

The Crown Court judge entirely rejected the oral evidence of Mr Ernest.  He was, the judge concluded, a “career fraudster” who had used the bank accounts of others and had produced no documents in support of his oral evidence.  The judge concluded that he was a dishonest man who had lied repeatedly under oath.

The judge accepted the benefit figure of £308,380 asserted by the prosecution and found that the defendant had not discharged the burden upon him to show that his ‘available amount’ was less than his benefit.

Accordingly he ordered Mr Ernest to pay £308,380 within 6 months, with a default sentence of 3 years consecutive to the prison term he was already serving.

 

The Court of Appeal judgment

On appeal it was argued that the judge should have reduced the benefit figure to reflect legitimate business activities conducted by Mr Ernest where he had provided tickets or had made refunds.  Furthermore Mr Ernest had incurred expenditures in obtaining the tickets which he had supplied.

The Court of Appeal would have none of this.  It noted the absence of evidence in support of the asserted legitimate activities and commented that “the fact that some unidentified proportion of that money might conceivably be referable to some specific (but unidentified) business transaction does not render the making of the assumption incorrect”.

The Court was not prepared to make any reduction in the benefit figure in respect of expenses which Mr Ernest might have incurred.  It regarded the occasional provision of tickets by Mr Ernest as a means of furthering his fraudulent purpose by luring customers to do more business with him.

The £209,980 assumed benefit arising from credits to the bank accounts was therefore upheld.

But the Court of Appeal did accept that the bank statements showed expenditures by Mr Ernest on his living costs.  These expenditures had therefore been met from monies already included in assumed benefit.  This undermined the prosecution’s assertion that Mr Ernest would have incurred £98,400 of living expenditure funded entirely by additional assumed criminal conduct.  There was no other suitable figure before the court, so this head of benefit was omitted on appeal.

In consequence the benefit figure was reduced to £209,980.  The court ordered Mr Ernest to pay this lower figure and reduced the default sentence to 2 years 6 months.

 

Commentary

One doesn’t know whether in this case the defence had instructed a forensic accountant or not.  It is possible that a forensic accountant’s report had been obtained but had not been disclosed as part of the defence evidence (perhaps for good reason!).

However it should come as no surprise to find a Crown Court judge entirely rejecting the unsupported oral evidence of a convicted defendant.  Possibly if a forensic accountant had given evidence in the Crown Court confiscation hearing the judge might have accepted that the defendant, having incurred the expenses shown on the bank accounts, would not have had an ‘available amount’ equal to the total of his assumed benefit.  Such a conclusion would have been consistent with the Court of Appeal decision in McIntosh & Marsden v R [2011] EWCA Crim 1501.

In the event this defendant seems destined to serve his default sentence in due course.

David

(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)