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Tainted gifts – valuation and consequences

Tainted giftAllegations of tainted gifts can cause serious problems for a defendant in confiscation proceedings. But what are those problems and how is a ‘tainted gift’ valued? In this second article on tainted gifts I explore these issues.

I have considered what is meant by a tainted gift in an earlier blog post.

The value of a tainted gift

Valuing a tainted gift is not entirely straightforward.  The starting point is that value means ‘market value’, s79 PoCA 2002. It is reasonable to suggest that ‘market value’ means the open market value as between a willing buyer and a willing seller, each of whom is fully informed about the asset.

But the statute goes on to deal specifically with the value of tainted gifts, s81. This says that the value of the tainted gift at the “material time” is the GREATER of (i) the value at the time of the gift (adjusted to take account of later changes in the value of money), or (ii) the value at the “material time”.

The expression “material time” is not defined in s81, but is used in s80 to mean the time when the court makes its decision (in other words the time at which the confiscation order is made or varied). The only sensible interpretation is that “material time” has the same meaning in s81.

So let’s consider a couple of examples.  Suppose a defendant has made a tainted gift of a new car to his wife, some years ago. At the time he purchased the car for £25,000. That is the market value of the car when the gift was made. Today the car, which the wife still has, is worth £15,000.  Then the value of the tainted gift is £25,000 (uplifted for inflation) because that is the greater of the two values.

Take another example, some years ago a defendant bought a house for £300,000 and gave it to his son. That is the market value of the house when the gift was made. Today the house, which the son still has, is worth £400,000. Then the value of the tainted gift is £400,000 because that is the greater of the two values (assuming that when the £300,000 is uplifted for inflation it does not exceed £400,000).

What about assets which go up and down in value, like shares in a listed company? Only two values matter for this purpose – the value at the time the gift is made and the value at the ‘material time’. The court should ignore the value at other times.

What if the gift has now become worthless? Case law tells us that even where the asset gifted no longer has any value the tainted gift will have value if the asset gifted had a value when the gift was made, see R v Johnson [2016] EWCA Crim 10. This again is because the greater value is the one to be adopted by the court.

But what if the recipient of the gift no longer has it, or has only part of it? In this case s81 provides that the court should value any asset which the recipient has which directly or indirectly represents the asset gifted to him.  If he has part of the asset, then what the court will value will be the part which he has plus any other asset which he has which directly or indirectly represents the other part.

Suppose a defendant has a valuable collection of rare postage stamps, which he gives to his daughter.  She keeps some of the stamps, sells some for £10,000 and swaps some of the stamps for some from another collector.  The court will need to know (i) the value of the collection at the time of the gift (uplifted for inflation since the date of the gift), and (ii) the current value of the stamps from the original collection which the daughter still has, plus £10,000 (uplifted for inflation since the date of the sale) for the stamps she sold, plus the current value of the stamps she received from the swaps. The value of the tainted gift will be the greater of (i) or (ii).

Finally let us consider the situation in which the defendant has gifted an asset to someone but there is simply no information before the court as to what has become of that asset since the gift.  In this case the court cannot say whether the recipient still has the asset, or any part of it, or any other asset which represents it. In such a case it appears that the court should simply value the gift at the time it was made (and uplift that for inflation), see R v Box [2018] EWCA Crim 542 at paragraph [7].


The effect of a tainted gift on available amount

It is beyond doubt that the value of a tainted gift must be added into the defendant’s ‘available amount’, s9. So the tainted gift increases the defendant’s ‘available amount’ and this may have the effect of increasing the amount the defendant is ordered to pay under the confiscation order.

This will be the case whether or not the defendant is in a position to recover the value of the gift from the recipient, as is underlined in the case of Johnson – to which reference has already been made.

In relation to the court’s power to appoint a receiver, s83 provides that property held by the recipient of a tainted gift is ‘realisable property’ which means that the court can appoint a receiver under s50 with the powers over the recipient’s property set out in s51. These may include power to sell assets belonging to the recipient in order to recover for the court the value of the tainted gift, to assist in satisfying the confiscation order.

Whether the making of a confiscation order with such drastic consequences would be ‘disproportionate’ in the sense referred to in s6(5) will depend upon the facts of the individual case. However such an order would not typically be regarded as disproportionate (even where it would cause hardship) because the main purpose of the legislation is to recover the value of the benefit of the convicted defendant’s criminal conduct and the order would be directed toward that aim.

In these circumstances it would not be necessary for a receiver to identify particular assets of the recipient which were, or represented, the assets gifted by the defendant as all the recipient’s assets are ‘realisable property’.

Where a court was satisfied that the ‘available amount’, including the tainted gift, was truly irrecoverable it may be appropriate for the court to set a lower default sentence, see Johnson at paragraph 31(iii).


The effect of a tainted gift on benefit

The effect of a tainted gift on benefit is less clear cut.

Where the defendant has purchased an asset, such as an item of jewellery, and made a gift of that asset then the purchase cost will be ‘expenditure incurred by the defendant’ which may be caught by the expenditure assumption of s10(4). Where the defendant has a ‘criminal lifestyle’ that will lead to an increase in benefit unless the assumption can be rebutted by evidence or the court considers that there would be a serious risk of injustice if the assumption were made. But that is a consequence of purchasing the asset – not a consequence of gifting it.

What about the situation in which a gift is made but no expenditure is incurred by the defendant? This was the situation in the Johnson case referred to above. In that case the defendant had gifted a house which was subject to a mortgage. The defendant considered the house to be worth £140,000 but transferred it to her daughter for only £120,000. She therefore had made a gift of £20,000. The defendant had a ‘criminal lifestyle’ and the gift was made after the ‘relevant day’.

The gift was therefore a tainted gift. But the property had originally been purchased many years earlier for £69,000. The tainted gift comprised part of the appreciation in value of the house. There was no expenditure incurred by the defendant in connection with making this gift.

However it appears that the Crown Court considered that this gift had the effect of increasing both the defendant’s ‘available amount’ and her benefit. The defendant appealed in connection with the increase in her ‘available amount’. The appeal was dismissed.

In the course of the judgment the Court of Appeal said this:

“However, it [the asset] was not alleged to be the proceeds of crime. The asset (equity in the house) had been acquired by the appellant because she held the property while it appreciated in value. There was no evidence that she had bought the house with the proceeds of crime. It was brought into account for the purposes of confiscation because of the criminal lifestyle and tainted gift provisions. The combined effect of these is to treat an asset as proceeds of crime even though it was not. The justification for this is described above. The appellant would not have been able to make a gift of £20,000 if she had not been benefiting from a criminal lifestyle and therefore the Act treats it as if it were the proceeds of crime.”

This suggests that where the prosecution can show that the defendant would not have been able to make the tainted gift if he had not been benefiting from a ‘criminal lifestyle’ the value of the tainted gift may become an element in benefit.

I have to say that I have been unable to find any basis for that in the wording of the legislation. It might also be suggested that, as the Johnson appeal concerned ‘available amount’ rather than benefit, this comment was obiter dictum.

I have not been able to find any other case law, or any statute law, directly on this point. This may be a matter that the courts will revisit at some point in the future.

In other circumstances it would appear that the making of a tainted gift does not, of itself, generate any benefit for the purposes of confiscation. There is no direct reference to a ‘tainted gift’ in the ‘criminal lifestyle’ assumptions of s10 or any other section dealing with the quantification of the benefit obtained by a defendant.

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(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation – what is a tainted gift?

Allegations of tainted gifts can cause serious problems for a defendant in confiscation proceedings. But what exactly is a ‘tainted gift’?


What is a gift?

In confiscation proceedings the word gift has a wider meaning than in everyday life.  A defendant is treated as making a gift if he transfers an asset to another person and receives either nothing for it or receives in return something whose value is significantly less than the value of that asset, s78 PoCA 2002.

So, for example, if I transfer £100 to you and receive nothing in return, I have made a gift to you.  But I can also make a gift to you if I transfer to you a car worth £20,000 and you pay me only £10,000 for it.

The statute does not contain a complete definition of a “gift”, it only indicates that, for example, a “gift” includes a transfer of an asset at a significant undervalue.

However case law suggests that for there to be a gift there must be (i) transfer of legal and beneficial ownership in an asset, (ii) acceptance of the gift by the donee, (iii)  no intention on the part of the donor that the asset should be returned to him, and (iv) that the transfer be either without consideration or at a significant undervalue, see Re Somaia [2017] EWHC 2554 (QB) at para [76].

So, for example, if a defendant owns a car and changes the registered owner to someone else (such as his wife or a friend) but continues to use the car as his own, then it could be argued that there has been no gift as the defendant is still in reality the owner of the car.  To put this in more formal words, there may have been a transfer of legal ownership but no transfer of beneficial ownership.

Similarly with a property, the legal title shown at the Land Registry does not necessarily indicate the beneficial ownership of the property.

If the defendant retains beneficial ownership of an asset then there has been no gift of that asset by him.  The same will be true if the defendant transfers an asset to someone to simply look after it for a while and return it to him later, or where the defendant transfers the asset to someone to hold it on trust for him.  In these cases the defendant is to be regarded as still owning the asset in question.


What is a tainted gift?

First of all, a tainted gift must be a gift by the defendant.  Once that is established, whether the gift is a tainted gift will in most cases depend solely on the date on which the gift was made.  The nature and provenance of the asset which is gifted is irrelevant in most cases.

The rules are slightly different depending upon whether the defendant has a criminal lifestyle or not.

If the defendant does not have a criminal lifestyle, then a gift by him will be a tainted gift if, and only if, it is a gift made by him on or after the date on which the offence was committed.  If the offence was committed on more than one day, or there is more than one offence, then the earliest day is used, see s77(4) to (7).

(Reference to the offence means the offence for which he is being sentenced in the proceedings which trigger the confiscation, see s6(2) and (9).)

So, for example, consider the case of Peter being sentenced for thefts from his employer which occurred from 5 October 2016 to 9 January 2017.  Peter does not have a criminal lifestyle.  The earliest day is 5 October 2016 and any gift by Peter on or after that day will be a tainted gift.  But any gift made by him before 5 October 2016 is not a tainted gift.

If the defendant does have a criminal lifestyle, then a gift by him will be a tainted gift in one of two circumstances.

Firstly, a gift will be a tainted gift if it was made on or after the ‘relevant day’.  Here the ‘relevant day’ is the first day of the period of six years which ends on the day on which the proceedings were commenced against the defendant which have resulted in conviction for an offence which has triggered the confiscation, see s77(2) and (9).  If there are two or more days, then the earliest one is the ‘relevant day’.

So, for example, consider the case of Jane being sentenced for concealing or converting criminal property which she did on 15 November 2016.  She has no previous convictions.  Jane does have a criminal lifestyle (because her offence is a Schedule 2 offence).  She was charged with the offence on 8 September 2017, which is the day the proceedings against her commenced.  So the ‘relevant day’ in her case is 9 September 2011.  Any gift by Jane on or after 9 September 2011 is a tainted gift.  Any gift made by her before 9 September 2011 is not a tainted gift.

But where a defendant has a criminal lifestyle there is an additional rule.  A gift is also tainted if it was made by the defendant at any time and was of property (a) which was obtained by the defendant as a result of or in connection with his general criminal conduct, or (b) which (in whole or part and whether directly or indirectly) represented in the defendant’s hands property obtained by him as a result of or in connection with his general criminal conduct, see s77(3).

This will rarely be applicable.  It can occur however if a long time elapses between the commission of an offence and the defendant being charged or where a defendant has previous convictions in previous proceedings (because these convictions will form part of his general criminal conduct, see s76(2)).

So, for example, consider the case of Trevor being sentenced for tax evasion from 6 April 2008 to 5 April 2015 from which he has obtained a benefit of £23,500.  Trevor does have a criminal lifestyle (because his offence was committed over a period of at least six months and he has obtained a benefit of at least £5,000).  He was charged with the offence on 27 June 2017, which is the day the proceedings against him commenced.  So the ‘relevant day’ in his case is 28 June 2011.  Any gift by Trevor on or after 28 June 2011 is a tainted gift.  But in addition any earlier gift of an asset which is, or is derived from, benefit of his offending (which as we know commenced prior to 28 June 2011) will also be a tainted gift.

This situation, where the defendant has a criminal lifestyle and his offence, or an earlier offence, occurred or commenced before the ‘relevant day’, is the only circumstance in which the nature and provenance of the asset which is gifted may be relevant to whether there has been a tainted gift.


What about spouses?

It is clear that one spouse may make a gift to the other and, in appropriate circumstances, a gift to a spouse is a tainted gift.  But does that mean that day to day sharing of money between spouses can be treated as the making of tainted gifts?

In practice it does not appear that, for example, a husband is regarded as making a gift when his salary is paid into a joint bank account with his wife.

It might be argued that legally there is no gift as, in this example, the husband is free to withdraw all the money in the account himself and so there is an expectation of a return of any ‘gift’.

A more likely explanation may be that prosecutors typically regard this as simply a feature of day to day domestic financial realities for many couples, rather than as examples of gifts being made from one spouse to another.

But what about more substantial and non-recurring gifts?

The case of R v Hayes [2018] EWCA Crim 682 concerned a married couple and the home in which they lived.  They married in September 2010.  Prior to their marriage both had had successful careers and well paid employments in Japan.  The husband’s employment came to an end just prior to their wedding.  The couple returned to the UK and the wife became pregnant, giving birth in October 2011.  It appears that neither of them were earning on their return to the UK.

In September 2011 they purchased a property.  The husband funded the entire purchase cost of £1.2m from his own resources, there was no mortgage.  But ownership of the property was placed in their joint names.

The husband and wife lived in the property.  The wife was a full time housewife and mother until returning to work in May 2013.  Until that time the husband paid all the household expenses and regular outgoings.

In July 2013 the husband transferred his half share in the matrimonial home to the wife for £250,000.  He was by that time incurring significant legal fees dealing with a criminal investigation into his conduct between 2006 and 2010.  He had been formally charged in June 2013.

His wife took out a mortgage to enable her to pay him the £250,000.

In October 2016 the property was sold for £1.6m.

The husband was ultimately convicted and was subject to confiscation on the basis that he had a criminal lifestyle.  The relevant day was in June 2007.

The issue arose as to whether he had made tainted gifts to his wife (a) on the purchase of the property in September 2011, and (b) on the sale of his half-share to her for £250,000 in July 2013.

Undoubtedly these events occurred after the ‘relevant day’ – the issue was whether these events were ‘gifts’.

The prosecution did not suggest that any additional gift arose from the husband paying all the household expenses and regular outgoings.

The husband pointed out that his wife had provided unpaid services as a wife and mother and argued that these should be valued and taken into account in determining whether he had made any gifts to her in relation to the ownership of the matrimonial home.

The court held that the husband had made tainted gifts to his wife on both occasions and that, for the purposes of confiscation, no monetary value could be placed on her services as a wife and mother in this case.

The court emphasised that each case is different and that the court needs to undertake an objective and evidence based approach to assertions concerning contributions.  Where the consideration which is asserted to have been provided by the recipient of the property is not in the form of a direct financial contribution, then it is necessary to examine the evidence rigorously and closely to see if the asserted consideration is capable of being assessed as consideration of value and (if it is) to what extent.  Any consideration which is asserted to have been provided must be capable of being ascribed a value in monetary terms and must be attributable to the transaction in question.


What are the consequences of a tainted gift?

The valuation of a tainted gift (both when the gift is made and subsequently) and the consequences of a tainted gift in confiscation proceedings are considered in a further blog article Tainted gifts – valuation and consequences.


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Confiscation and Trading Standards offences

Cumbria Trading Standards officerTrading standards officers these days deal with a wide range of offences.  Years ago trading standards work centred on checking that retailers were using correct weights and measures.  That is still an element of the work, but trading standards officers today also deal with scams, frauds, dishonest overcharging, trade mark and intellectual property offences and transgressions of the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 and other legislation.

Consumer protection

The essence of trading standards work is the protection of consumers.  So it is not surprising that in criminal prosecutions trading standards departments will focus on the loss to the consumer.  That includes losses which the offender intended but failed, for one reason or another, to bring about.

For sentencing purposes it is unquestionably correct for the court to have regard to both the actual and the intended losses to consumers.

But a different approach is required in confiscation.


It should not be overlooked that the principal objective of confiscation is to deprive a wrongdoer of the financial benefit obtained by him from his criminal conduct.  Self-evidently benefit which the convicted defendant had intended to obtain but did not, cannot be the subject of a confiscation order.

But equally importantly, the focus of a confiscation order is on the benefit obtained by the convicted defendant – not on the loss suffered by the consumer.  As it was put succinctly in the case of R v Reynolds & Others [2017] EWCA Crim 1455 at para [58(vi)] “the amount lost by the loser is generally irrelevant”.

But how is the benefit to be established for the purposes of the confiscation provisions of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002?


The first step has to be the correct identification of the convicted defendant.  This is particularly important where there is more than one defendant (where it is necessary to determine if each element of benefit was obtained singly by one defendant or jointly by more than one) and where a limited company is involved (where it may be necessary to consider whether the corporate veil should be pierced or to differentiate between benefit obtained by the company and benefit obtained by a director or employee).

This may involve careful consideration of matters of fact and issues of law.

Of course when there is more than one convicted defendant quite separate s16 statements are required for each defendant.

The next step is careful consideration of the precise offence(s) of which the defendant has been convicted and – if possible ‘criminal lifestyle’ is in issue – the period of time over which each offence occurred, and the number of offences of which this defendant has been convicted.

It is sometimes the case that a defendant will be prosecuted for a number of individual offences but the trading standards officers regard these specific charges as merely representative of a more widely operated illegal method of business.

In assessing the benefit of ‘particular criminal conduct’ the court will have regard only to matters which have been the subject of a charge which has resulted in conviction (and other offences taken into consideration in sentencing).

Where the offences do not appear in Schedule 2 PoCA 2002 and the aggregate benefit obtained by a convicted defendant is less than £5,000 (in England and Wales) then that defendant will not be deemed to have a ‘criminal lifestyle’ and the statutory assumptions of s10 cannot be employed.

When quantifying the benefit obtained by a convicted defendant it may, depending upon the circumstances, be appropriate to use the amount of the his profits (i.e. net proceeds), permitting him to deduct the expenses incurred in supplying the goods or services in question.

It may also be necessary to reduce the amount of benefit in respect of VAT charged to the consumers and any amounts refunded to them.

For all these reasons the benefit obtained by the convicted defendant may be very much less than the losses suffered by consumers as a result of the criminal conduct in which he engaged, or even the amount referred to by the judge when sentencing him.

So what are the key points to remember?

Key points

For the prosecution, great care needs to be taken at the charging stage regarding who to charge (and, for example, whether to charge a limited company as well as charging a director), what offence(s) to charge, and how many charges to bring.

For the defence, it is important to challenge the s16 statement appropriately having regard to applicable statute and case law and the relevant facts.

In many trading standards cases it will be useful for the defence to instruct a forensic accountant to critically review the prosecution s16 statement.

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

UK Supreme Court split on confiscation

Supreme Court logoIt is perhaps surprising and a little troubling to find in 2018 the UK Supreme Court split 3 – 2 on the application of confiscation legislation which is 15 years old.

The issue was a simple one – but its resolution involved consideration of some fundamental principles of statutory interpretation.

The issue & the relevant legislation

There were two defendants, who were husband and wife, R v McCool (Northern Ireland) [2018] UKSC 23.  Each of them had pleaded guilty to four offences in connection with false applications made for state benefits.  In each case one offence occurred prior to 24 March 2003, and the other three after that date.

When it came to confiscation the prosecution wished to proceed under Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 rather than Criminal Justice Act 1988 confiscation provisions – but should they be permitted to do so?

That was the issue the Supreme Court was tasked to determine.

The Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 confiscation provisions apply to offences committed after 23 March 2003, by virtue of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (Commencement No 5, Transitional Provisions, Savings and Amendment) Order 2003.

The prosecution had sought to disregard for each defendant the offence committed before 24 March 2003, relying in each case on the benefit from only the three later offences.

The prosecution did not seek to invoke the ‘criminal lifestyle’ assumptions against the defendants.

One might ask why the prosecution did not wish to proceed under Criminal Justice Act 1988 provisions, which could have allowed the s72AA statutory assumptions to be invoked.  The answer is not spelled out in the judgment but it is clear that, in any event, each defendant’s ‘available amount’ was less than his or her ‘benefit’.  So the statutory assumptions under CJA 1988 would not have produced any useful result in practice.

On the other hand, the CJA 1988 legislation has no provision similar to s22 PoCA 2002, which provides for the upward variation of a confiscation order in later years when a defendant has an increased ‘available amount’.

It may have been the potential for a future s22 application which attracted the prosecution to the PoCA 2002 confiscation provisions (even though this involved a reduction in ‘benefit’ because in each case any ‘benefit’ arising under the earliest offence could not be recognised at all under PoCA 2002).

Although this was a Northern Ireland case very similar legislation applies in England and Wales, so the decision of the Supreme Court is equally relevant in that jurisdiction.

The legislation

The transitional provisions provide that “Section 6 of the Act (making of confiscation order) shall not have effect where the offence, or any of the offences, mentioned in section 6(2) was committed before 24th March 2003″ (but with the substitution of s156, the equivalent section, in Northern Ireland).

Subsection (2) (in England and Wales) provides:-

“The first condition is that a defendant falls within any of the following paragraphs —

    (a) he is convicted of an offence or offences in proceedings before the Crown Court;
    (b) he is committed to the Crown Court for sentence in respect of an offence or offences under section 3, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4, 4A or 6 of the Sentencing Act;
    (c) he is committed to the Crown Court in respect of an offence or offences under section 70 below (committal with a view to a confiscation order being considered)”.

The Northern Ireland legislation is similar, but with (b) omitted.

Here the two defendants had been committed to Crown Court with a view to a confiscation order being considered.

Lord Kerr’s view

Lord Kerr’s view was that it would be “a wholly anomalous result” if this legislation were interpreted to mean that where a defendant had been convicted, in the same proceedings, of offences committed both before and after 24 March 2003 all of those offences had to be dealt with under the earlier confiscation statutes.

In Lord Kerr’s opinion, it was Parliament’s intention that all offences committed after 23 March 2003 which could generate confiscation orders under the Act should be dealt with under PoCA 2002.

“It cannot have been intended that a swathe of post-2003 offences should be removed from the Act’s purview simply because the defendant was convicted of an associated offence before the relevant date”, he said.

Since the courts will generally seek to find an interpretation of legislation which does not produce an anomalous or absurd result, and which gives effect to Parliament’s intention, subsection (2) must be interpreted as referring to the “offence or offences” to which PoCA 2002 applied.  That is the “offence or offences” committed after 23 March 2003.

It follows that the “offence or offences mentioned” in subsection (2) were all committed after 23 March 2003.

On that basis the defendants’ offences committed before 24 March 2003 could be ignored and confiscation could proceed under PoCA 2002 as sought by the prosecution – relying only upon those offences committed after 23 March 2003.

The views of Lord Hughes and Lady Black

Lord Hughes and Lady Black arrived at the same conclusion as Lord Kerr.

“If the appellants’ contention were correct, and the earlier confiscation regime has to be applied wherever there is a single pre-commencement offence on the indictment (or before the magistrates) even if it is not relied on for confiscation, it would follow that that rule would have to apply even if the pre-commencement offence could never, even arguably, have generated a benefit, and thus could never, even arguably, have had the slightest relevance to the issue of confiscation,” said Lord Hughes.

Because this outcome “might well be termed absurd” this could not be the appropriate interpretation of the legislation.

Since three of the five judges had reached this conclusion the prosecution’s approach had prevailed.

The dissenting minority

The dissenting minority, Lord Reed and Lord Mance, disagreed with the majority about the intention of Parliament and did not agree that it would be “absurd” for the earlier confiscation legislation to have been required to apply where one or more offences dealt with in the same proceedings had been committed before 24 March 2003.

They considered that the words in the legislation should be given their natural meaning and that the interpretation placed on the words by the majority was “strained beyond breaking point”.

“It seems to me to be much more likely that the drafter of the transitional provisions intended to bring all the offences in any set of proceedings into one statutory confiscation scheme or the other. Then, at least, no offences would fall outside all confiscation regimes”, said Lord Reed.


The prosecution won the day and it is now undeniable that the prosecution may opt, in confiscation proceedings, to entirely disregard offences committed before 24 March 2003 in order to proceed under PoCA 2002.

It is also true that none of the Supreme Court justices considered it appropriate in this case to “read into” the legislation additional words in order to give a clear and unambiguous meaning to that legislation.

However the sharp differences in opinion in these judgments underline the dangers of seeking to divine the intentions of Parliament – and the complexities of the law around confiscation.

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

A dishonest employee – but is it theft?

Police lamp copyright David Winch 2014

Pamela Darroux was from 2 November 2002 until 1 April 2014 employed as a manager by a charity known as the Sunridge Court Housing Association.  She was a trusted and senior employee, managing the residential care home for elderly people operated by the Housing Association in Golders Green.  She had responsibility for the general running of the home.  Her responsibilities extended to the pay-roll of all employed staff, including herself.

She was contracted to work from Monday to Friday, between 9 am and 5 pm.  It was an agreed term that when she did overtime, or covered for other members of staff, she was entitled to claim additional payment.  She was also entitled to claim payment in lieu of holiday not taken.

It seems that her the practice throughout the period of her employment was to fill in the relevant claim forms by hand.

The mechanics of payment

Once the relevant claims were approved the forms would be sent on a monthly basis to a company called PCS Limited, who, in effect, provided pay-roll services.  It appears that on receipt of the relevant forms PCS would make the necessary computations for each employee; arrange for the appropriate deductions, with a view to accounting to the Revenue, in respect of PAYE and National Insurance contributions; prepare and send to each employee, the relevant monthly Pay Advice (which would include recording payment for hours worked in excess of the basic contracted amount); and arrange for the payment by bank transfer to each such employee accordingly.

The sums in question would then be paid out of the Housing Association’s account via BACS and the corresponding amount would then appear as a credit in each individual employee’s designated bank account.

Discovery of the overpayments

In 2013 the Housing Association was subject to an inspection by the Care Quality Commission, which reported shortcomings in its administration.

The Executive Director of the Housing Association ordered an audit of the financial position, including payroll payments.  The upshot of this was a claim by the Housing Association that Ms Darroux had defrauded the charity by submitting falsely inflated overtime / on call claims and claims in lieu of holiday entitlement for herself.  The total amount said to be involved was quantified at £49,465 for the period between January 2011 and February 2014.

Criminal prosecution

Ms Darroux was arrested, interviewed and ultimately charged with nine counts of theft contrary to s1 Theft Act 1968 in that she “stole monies belonging to Sunridge Court Housing Association”.

At the conclusion of her trial in the Crown Court on 15 June 2016 the jury found Ms Darroux guilty on six of the counts on the indictment.  On those counts on which the jury convicted they had, on the invitation of the judge, returned special verdicts setting out the amounts they had found to be dishonestly taken (these were rather less than had been alleged by the prosecution).

Ms Darroux was sentenced to 16 months imprisonment.  She appealed.

Grounds of appeal

In the Court of Appeal her counsel argued that, on the facts and circumstances of this case, counts of theft were unsustainable.

Counsel necessarily accepted that, by their verdicts, the jury had found Ms Darroux to be dishonest in respect of the counts on which she was convicted, but submitted that there were no acts constituting the appropriation of property belonging to another.

Counsel accepted that the facts alleged would bring this case within the ambit of s2 of the Fraud Act 2006; but not within the ambit of s1 Theft Act 1968.

Court of Appeal decision

The Court of Appeal concluded “with no enthusiasm” that these convictions must be quashed, Darroux v The Crown [2018] EWCA Crim 1009.

The dishonest actions of Ms Darroux were not “theft” as defined in law.  What had happened was that the Housing Association’s bank balance (a debt due from the bank to the Housing Association) had fallen and Ms Darroux’s bank balance (a debt due to her from her bank) had increased.

But these were two different assets.  Ms Darroux had not therefore appropriated property from the Housing Association.  This was a point dealt with by the courts long ago in R v Preddy [1996] UKHL 13.

What is more, the bank transfer had been made by PCS, not by Ms Darroux.  Ms Darroux had not assumed the rights of the Housing Association to its bank balance – those rights had been exercised by PCS.

The Court of Appeal held that it would be wrong to distort the meaning of the statutory language in order to overcome the difficulties thrown up by a wrong charging decision.  The remedy in such a case is to formulate the appropriate charges in the first place.

The Appeal Court was not prepared to substitute a conviction under s2 Fraud Act 2016.


Perhaps surprisingly no one appears to have drawn the attention of the Court of Appeal to the offence of false accounting contrary to s17 Theft Act 1968 – which seems to perfectly cover the facts of this case.  That section applies “Where a person dishonestly, with a view to gain for himself or another or with intent to cause loss to another . . .  falsifies any account or any record or document made or required for any accounting purpose”.

The lesson to be learned is that it is important – for both prosecution and defence – to have careful regard to the legal ingredients of the offence on the indictment.  A ‘technical’ error in selecting the correct offence to charge may result in a dishonest defendant going free.

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to matters arising under the provisions of the criminal law in England and Wales.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

The Court’s discretion under s22 PoCA 2002

Crown Court judgeThe revisiting of old confiscation orders by prosecutors under section 22 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 is becoming more frequent but as yet few variations made under s22 have been appealed.

In stark contrast to the position when a confiscation order is first made, on a s22 revision the court – in other words the judge – has discretion concerning what variation to make to the original confiscation order and even whether to refuse to make any variation at all.

[NOTE: A longer article on s22 is HERE.]

Section 22 is headed “Order made: reconsideration of available amount”.


Reconsideration of available amount

Section 22 PoCA 2002 empowers the Crown Court to vary an existing confiscation order made under s6 of the Act. In effect it allows the prosecution to apply to the court for a further payment to be required from the defendant under an existing confiscation order where his available amount has increased since the original order was made.

We are considering the position of a defendant who was made subject to a confiscation order, perhaps some years ago, and the court ruled then that he had a figure of benefit which was higher than his available amount. At that time the court would not have ordered him to pay the full amount of his benefit. Instead the amount he was then ordered to pay would have been restricted to his available amount at that time. The figures of the defendant’s benefit, available amount and the amount he was ordered to pay should all be spelled out in the original confiscation order.

Under s22 the prosecutor returns to court and asks it to consider the available amount which the defendant has now and to order him to pay a further amount now towards his total benefit.

But the court is required under s22(4) to do what “it believes is just”.  In the case of Padda v R [2013] EWCA 2330 the Court of Appeal noted, at para [45] that it is entirely appropriate on a s22 application for the court to bear in mind any “consideration which might properly be thought to affect the justice of the case”.

At the same time the court must have regard to the underlying policy behind confiscation – that offenders should be stripped of the benefit of their offending.

So could there ever be a case where the court would simply refuse the prosecution’s application to order the defendant to pay a further amount?


Mr Mundy’s case

Ian Mundy had been convicted in Cardiff Crown Court in 2008 of drugs offences (involving cocaine and cannabis) and money laundering.  He had been subject to confiscation with a benefit of £172,365 and an available amount of £9,275.  He was ordered to pay £9,275 and did so by 19 March 2009.

There was therefore an excess benefit of £163,090 which Mr Mundy had never been ordered to pay.

In 2016 or 2017 it came to the attention of prosecutors that the property owned by Mr Mundy (which had a negative equity in 2008) now had a positive value.  In addition Mr Mundy now had a car, a van and two motorcycles and had over £8,000 in bank accounts.  He seemed an ideal candidate for a s22 application.

A restraint order was obtained on 21 February 2017 and a s22 application was lodged on 26 May 2017.  The Crown sought a further payment of £29,791.  Mr Mundy disputed the Crown’s valuation of his assets and, following exchanges of documents, the Crown reduced its figure to £22,061.  Mr Mundy put the figure at only £2,561 arguing, amongst other things, that the monies in the bank accounts were to pay for various items and to support his family. He said the motorcycles had little value and were his hobby; the van was used for work; the car was jointly owned with a third party and the value placed on the property was excessive.

The application was heard on 13 September 2017.  The Crown Court judge refused to order that Mr Mundy pay any further amount.  The judge said, “I have read the application and the information in support of the application to make the order. I have also read the detailed response to the section 22 application in which the explanation is provided on behalf of the defendant, firstly, to the circumstances in which he acquired the various vehicles and also the circumstances and the use to which the savings which were gathered were to be put. I have absolutely no doubt that it would not be just in these circumstances to make the order under section 22 and I decline to do so.”

The Crown appealed.


The appeal

The Court of Appeal heard the case in January 2018, R v Mundy [2018] EWCA Crim 105.

On appeal the court noted that what was “just” required a consideration of what was “just” for the prosecution as well as for the defendant.  The court noted that the judge in the Crown Court had expressly referred to the public interest in confiscating the proceeds of crime.

The court considered that the judge’s reasoning had been rather too “abbreviated”.  At para [33] it remarked “If the judge had gone through the list and given brief reasons for rejecting each element in it, and if he had added that there must be an element of proportionality in the disposition of court resources, then we doubt there could have been any proper basis for challenging the order.  Judges are entitled summarily to dismiss applications that they regard as being substantially without merit, but the Crown had spent considerable time and effort preparing for the application and both it and the public were entitled to know why the judge rejected the application.”

But the Court of Appeal went on to conclude that the Crown Court judge had a discretion to refuse to vary the order and that on the facts it was properly open to him to do so in Mr Mundy’s case.  The court dismissed the prosecution’s appeal.

It follows that – at least for now – Mr Mundy is not required to pay anything further under the confiscation order.


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to confiscation proceedings under the provisions of Part 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to a defendant’s confiscation proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in a relatively short article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

The meaning of “dishonesty” in English criminal law

Legal wig copyright David Winch 2014
What is meant by “dishonesty” in English criminal law? When considering the meaning of dishonesty the criminal courts of England and Wales until now often referred to a case decided last century. Recently in the case of Ivey v Genting Casinos (UK) Ltd (t/a Crockfords) [2017] UKSC 67 (25 October 2017) the UK Supreme Court reconsidered the meaning of dishonesty – and came to some new conclusions.


The two-stage ‘Ghosh’ test

Until October 2017 the leading case on the meaning of dishonesty in English criminal law was R v Ghosh [1982] EWCA Crim 2. In that case, decided in 1982, the Court of Appeal determined that there was a two-stage test for dishonesty. The first stage was based on an objective criterion and the second stage was based on a subjective criterion. The two stage test was put in the following terms:-

“In determining whether the prosecution has proved that the defendant was acting dishonestly, a jury must first of all decide whether according to the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people what was done was dishonest. If it was not dishonest by those standards, that is the end of the matter and the prosecution fails.

If it was dishonest by those standards, then the jury must consider whether the defendant himself must have realised that what he was doing was by those standards dishonest. In most cases, where the actions are obviously dishonest by ordinary standards, there will be no doubt about it. It will be obvious that the defendant himself knew that he was acting dishonestly. It is dishonest for a defendant to act in a way which he knows ordinary people consider to be dishonest, even if he asserts or genuinely believes that he is morally justified in acting as he did.”

So until October 2017 criminal courts operated on the basis that not only must the conduct of the defendant be dishonest by the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people (the objective test) but the defendant himself must have realised that he was acting dishonestly by that standard (the subjective test).


The subjective test

What was implied in Ghosh, was that a defendant was entitled to say, “I did not know that anybody would regard what I was doing as dishonest” and if he was believed he should be acquitted of dishonesty (as the subjective test was not satisfied).

But the Supreme Court has now criticised that approach, saying that “It has the unintended effect that the more warped the defendant’s standards of honesty are, the less likely it is that he will be convicted of dishonest behaviour”.

The new judgment means that it is still necessary for the jury in the Crown Court or the magistrates in the Magistrates’ Court to reach conclusions about the actual state of mind of the defendant – but only insofar as this relates to the defendant’s state of knowledge or belief as to the facts.  The Supreme Court has now said that criminal courts should no longer ask themselves whether the defendant himself realised that he was acting in a way which ordinary people would consider to be dishonest.


The new legal position

So instead of the Ghosh test, when dishonesty is in question the court must first ascertain (subjectively) the actual state of the individual’s knowledge or belief as to the facts. The question is not whether that belief is reasonable – the question is whether it is genuinely held.  Once his actual state of mind as to knowledge or belief as to the facts is established, the question whether his conduct was honest or dishonest is to be determined by the jury or magistrates by applying the (objective) standards of ordinary decent people.

There is no longer any requirement that the defendant must appreciate that what he has done is, by those standards, dishonest.

One consequence of this is that the definition of “dishonesty” is now consistent between criminal and civil law in England and Wales.


An example

Suppose a person is newly arrived in England and he has come from a country in which all public transport is free.  He gets on a bus in London and on arriving at his destination gets off without paying.  He is charged under s3 Theft Act 1978 with dishonestly making off without payment.  But was he dishonest?

The issue is ‘Did he genuinely believe that no payment was required?’.  If he did then he has not been dishonest and should be acquitted.  If, on the other hand, he did know that payment was required then he was dishonest by not paying.

But this issue concerns the defendant’s belief about the relevant facts – the issue is not about his understanding of what constitutes “dishonesty”.  That is the change in the law as a result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in October 2017.


Is the defendant’s state of mind irrelevant?

So is it now totally irrelevant that the defendant wrongly believed that what he was doing was acceptable behaviour?  Well, not entirely.  A defendant’s deluded belief that he was not acting dishonestly (for example because he hoped one day to repay money which he was stealing and spending) will not now result in his acquittal.  But it could be put forward in mitigation on sentencing that he had no intention to cause harm to his unfortunate victim.

Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article applies to matters arising under the provisions of the criminal law in England and Wales.  Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Money Laundering Regulations 2017

Big Ben imageThe final wording of the new Money Laundering Regulations 2017 was published on 22 June 2017. To give them their full title The Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing and Transfer of Funds (Information on the Payer) Regulations 2017 came into force on 26 June 2017.  The reality is however that the new Regulations will take a year or two to be fully effective.

The Regulations run to over 100 pages.  I cannot describe them fully in a blog such as this, but I will mention a few points of interest.  These regulations replace the Money Laundering Regulations 2007 (as amended) and The Transfer of Funds (Information on the Payer) Regulations 2007.  Many of the provisions of the 2017 Regulations simply continue requirements of the 2007 ones.  But there are some changes of emphasis and important new requirements too.  The new Regulations also implement in UK law the requirements of the EU Fourth Money Laundering Directive.

  1. The hierarchy of risk assessments
  2. Written policies, controls and procedures
  3. Changes for High Value Dealers
  4. Changes for Estate Agents
  5. Politically exposed persons
  6. Banning persons with criminal convictions
  7. Conclusion
  8. Contacting us


The hierarchy of risk assessments

The new Regulations set out a hierarchy of risk assessments.  The UK government, in particular HM Treasury and Home Office, are required by regulation 16 to make arrangements before 26 June 2018 for a risk assessment to be undertaken to identify, assess, understand and mitigate the risks of money laundering and terrorist financing affecting the United Kingdom.

Then under regulation 17 each of the various supervisory bodies must identify and assess the international and domestic risks of money laundering and terrorist financing to which those relevant persons for which it is the supervisory authority (“its own sector”) are subject.  The supervisory body must take into account the risk assessment from HM Treasury and Home Office.

Finally under regulation 18 each ‘relevant person’ (businesses in the regulated sector) must take appropriate steps to identify and assess the risks of money laundering and terrorist financing to which its own business is subject.

In carrying out that risk assessment a relevant person must take into account information made available to it by its supervisory authority and its own risk factors. Those will include risk factors relating to its customers, the countries or geographic areas in which it operates, its products or services, its transactions and its delivery channels.


Written policies, controls and procedures

The new Regulations are much more prescriptive about the written policies, controls and procedures required.  Regulation 19 in particular spells out these requirements.

    • (1) A relevant person must
      • (a) establish and maintain policies, controls and procedures to mitigate and manage effectively the risks of money laundering and terrorist financing identified in any risk assessment undertaken by the relevant person under regulation 18(1);
      • (b) regularly review and update the policies, controls and procedures established under sub-paragraph (a);
      • (c) maintain a record in writing of —
        • (i) the policies, controls and procedures established under sub-paragraph (a);
        • (ii) any changes to those policies, controls and procedures made as a result of the review and update required by sub-paragraph (b); and
        • (iii) the steps taken to communicate those policies, controls and procedures, or any changes to them, within the relevant person’s business.
    • (2) The policies, controls and procedures adopted by a relevant person under paragraph (1) must be —
      • (a) proportionate with regard to the size and nature of the relevant person’s business, and
      • (b) approved by its senior management.
    • (3) The policies, controls and procedures referred to in paragraph (1) must include —
      • (a) risk management practices;
      • (b) internal controls (see regulations 21 to 24);
      • (c) customer due diligence (see regulations 27 to 38);
      • (d) reliance and record keeping (see regulations 39 to 40);
      • (e) the monitoring and management of compliance with, and the internal communication of, such policies, controls and procedures.
    • (4) The policies, controls and procedures referred to in paragraph (1) must include policies, controls and procedures —
      • (a) which provide for the identification and scrutiny of –
        • (i) any case where —
          • (aa) a transaction is complex and unusually large, or there is an unusual pattern of transactions, and
          • (bb) the transaction or transactions have no apparent economic or legal purpose, and
        • (ii) any other activity or situation which the relevant person regards as particularly likely by its nature to be related to money laundering or terrorist financing;
      • (b) which specify the taking of additional measures, where appropriate, to prevent the use for money laundering or terrorist financing of products and transactions which might favour anonymity;
      • (c) which ensure that when new technology is adopted by the relevant person, appropriate measures are taken in preparation for, and during, the adoption of such technology to assess and if necessary mitigate any money laundering or terrorist financing risks this new technology may cause;
      • (d) under which anyone in the relevant person’s organisation who knows or suspects (or has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting) that a person is engaged in money laundering or terrorist financing as a result of information received in the course of the business or otherwise through carrying on that business is required to comply with —
        • (i) Part 3 of the Terrorism Act 2000; or
        • (ii) Part 7 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002;
      • (e) which, in the case of a money service business that uses agents for the purpose of its business, ensure that appropriate measures are taken by the business to assess —
        • (i) whether an agent used by the business would satisfy the fit and proper test provided for in regulation 58; and
        • (ii) the extent of the risk that the agent may be used for money laundering or terrorist financing.
    • (5) In determining what is appropriate or proportionate with regard to the size and nature of its business, a relevant person may take into account any guidance which has been —
      • (a) issued by the FCA; or
      • (b) issued by any other supervisory authority or appropriate body and approved by the Treasury.

This regulation effectively requires each business in the regulated sector to draw up new written statements of policies, controls and procedures.


Changes for High Value Dealers

It was expected that the monetary lower limit for cash transactions would be reduced from €15,000.  That has indeed happened and the new limit is €10,000.  This means that when a firm or sole trader who by way of business trades in goods (including an auctioneer dealing in goods) receives, in respect of any transaction, a payment or payments in cash of at least 10,000 euros (or equivalent) in total he is acting as a ‘high value dealer’ and is subject to the Regulations.  As previously, this applies whether the transaction is executed in a single operation or in several operations which appear to be linked.

But Regulation 14 makes two other changes for High Valuer Dealers.  Now these Regulations apply where such a trader makes such a payment as well as when he receives one.

Also the regulation specifies that a payment does not cease to be a “payment in cash” for these purposes if cash is paid by or on behalf of the person making the payment to a person other than the other party to the transaction for the benefit of the other party, or into a bank account for the benefit of the other party to the transaction.


Changes for Estate Agents

An important change for estate agents is that by Regulation 4 an estate agent is to be treated as entering into a business relationship with a purchaser (as well as with a seller) at the point when the purchaser’s offer is accepted by the seller.

This means that at that stage the estate agent will have to complete customer due diligence on the purchaser of a property.  That was not previously required where the estate agent had been instructed by the seller.

This provision may help to address concerns about overseas buyers using tainted funds to purchase properties in the UK.


Politically exposed persons

A new definition of ‘politically exposed persons’ in Regulation 35 means that a UK senior politician entrusted with prominent public functions would also now be regarded as a PEP.  As a result additional anti-money laundering precautions are necessary when dealing with him or with a family member or close associate of his.


Banning persons with criminal convictions

The Regulations effectively will prevent a person who has been convicted of a ‘relevant offence’ from being a beneficial owner, officer or manager of a firm or a sole practitioner in specified types of business within the regulated sector.  This is achieved by Regulation 26 using a rather circuitous mechanism.

The regulation requires beneficial owners, officers and managers of a firm and sole practitioners to be approved by their supervisory body (before 26 June 2018) if the firm is an accountant, tax adviser, auditor, insolvency practitioner, legal professional, estate agent or high value dealer.  But the supervisory body is required to approve anyone who applies to it unless the applicant has been convicted of a ‘relevant offence’.  If a person is inadvertently approved who has a conviction for a ‘relevant offence’ their approval is invalid (and a valid approval becomes invalid when an approved person is newly convicted).

There is a list of ‘relevant offences’ in Schedule 3 to the Regulations.  These include “any offence which has deception or dishonesty as one of its components” as well as a long list of specified offences, including offences under the Data Protection Act 1998 and Perjury Act 1911, for example.  Unsurprisingly, tax and money laundering offences are included in the list.

One ramification of this will be that for an accountant, for example, being convicted of a ‘relevant offence’ could effectively end his career.

It is not clear, to me at least, whether this will affect persons who have old offences which would be regarded for most purposes as ‘spent’ under the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974.



The Money Laundering Regulations 2017 make significant changes to the law which will affect every business in the regulated sector.


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article deals with the Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing and Transfer of Funds (Information on the Payer) Regulations 2017 so far as they apply in England and Wales. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)

Alleged possession of criminal property

Police lamp copyright David Winch 2014Pete and Tony both worked for Snodsby Council as care workers at the Flower Dew Home.  This was supported accommodation for four adults with learning difficulties, who would not be capable of living independently or managing their personal finances.  Pete and Tony had worked there for years and had become friends.

Part of their role was to take residents on trips out to local shops and attractions where the residents could spend their own funds, withdrawn for the purpose from safe custody at the home. It was permissible for the residents to purchase items for themselves and even spend small amounts on gifts for the staff – an ice cream for example.  After each trip the care workers were obliged to account for the expenditures of the residents’ monies.

But one day an allegation was made that Pete had been stealing cash from the residents. After a local authority investigation a report was prepared which alleged that, as well as stealing their cash, Pete had been spending excessive amounts on trips out.  In effect Pete was alleged to have been treating himself and Tony on these trips, taking improper advantage of the residents’ vulnerability by using their money inappropriately.



Pete and Tony were interviewed by council staff, including a manager Mr Justin Thyme.  Pete immediately admitted that he had taken some money.  Following those interviews the matter was referred to the police and both Pete and Tony were arrested and interviewed under caution by Detective Constable Arthur Crabtree.

DC Crabtree drew up a schedule of amounts drawn by Pete from residents’ monies between August 2013 and October 2014.  DC Crabtree called these “unaccounted withdrawals”.

Then DC Crabtree obtained copies of bank account statements for both Pete and Tony from their banks.  He looked for cash deposits into Pete’s and Tony’s bank accounts over the same period.  He put these deposits onto his schedule, which he called ABC/1.

The schedule showed total “unaccounted withdrawals” of £12,621 from residents’ monies between August 2013 and October 2014.  Over the same period there were cash deposits, which DC Crabtree called “unsourced deposits”, of £12,249 in Pete’s bank accounts.  In that same period there were also bank transfers of £7,960 from Pete’s bank accounts to Tony’s.



In due course Pete was charged with theft of a total of £10,221 from the four residents of Flower Dew Home, contrary to s1 Theft Act 1968.  Pete was also charged with possession of criminal property of £12,249 in money (which was the total amount of cash he had banked) contrary to s329 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and concealing criminal property of £7,960 in money (which was the total amount of the bank transfers to Tony) contrary to s327 of the same Act.

Tony was charged with possessing criminal property of £7,960 in money (which was the amount transferred from Pete’s bank accounts to his) contrary to s329 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

Pete pleaded guilty to all the charges he faced and was sentenced.

Tony pleaded not guilty to the single charge he faced.  The matter was referred to the Crown Court and a trial date was fixed.


An ‘open and shut’ case?

One might think that Tony was certain to be convicted because Pete had already pleaded guilty to concealing criminal property of the £7,960 which he had transferred to Tony.  But matters are not that straightforward.  Pete might have been advised to plead guilty to all the charges he faced rather than risk further investigations by the council or the police and to get the maximum reduction in sentence from an early guilty plea.  Because Pete had pleaded guilty the prosecution evidence had not been challenged in court by Pete’s legal team.

The court was not entitled to assume that because Pete had pleaded guilty, Tony must also be guilty.  Added to that, even if Pete was guilty of concealing criminal property of £7,960 by transferring it to Tony, it should not automatically follow that Tony would be guilty of possessing criminal property by receiving that money – that would depend, amongst other things, on whether Tony suspected or knew the money was proceeds of crime.


Possible defences

Tony’s legal team were aware of four alternative possible reasons why he might be found not guilty of the offence of which he had been charged.

These were

  1. the £7,960 was not proceeds of crime, or
  2. the £7,960 was proceeds of crime, but Tony neither knew nor suspected that, or
  3. the £7,960 was repayment of monies Tony had previously lent to Pete, or
  4. the £7,960 transferred into Tony’s bank account was not money which was in Tony’s “possession”.


Our instructions

Tony’s solicitors instructed us to consider the prosecution evidence, including exhibit ABC/1 – DC Crabtree’s schedule of “unaccounted withdrawals”, “unsourced deposits” and bank transfers from Pete to Tony – in relation to possible reasons 1 and 3 and to prepare an expert witness report suitable to be served in evidence.  If necessary we would attend Tony’s trial and give oral evidence.


Our work

We prepared a fee estimate which was approved by the Legal Aid Agency.  Then we set to work.

The first thing we did was to attempt to verify all the entries on exhibit ABC/1 to supporting bank statements or other documentary evidence supplied by the prosecution.

The documents presented to us by our instructing solicitors were the prosecution bundle which included witness statements from DC Crabtree and the council manager Mr Thyme and the bank statements of Pete’s and Tony’s which DC Crabtree had obtained – but did not include any accounting records of Flower Dew Home relating to residents’ monies (which had been referred to by Mr Thyme in his witness statement) nor the transcripts of the interviews DC Crabtree had held with Pete and Tony.  Also there was no prosecution case summary in the bundle nor any documents from the plea and trial preparation hearing.


The prosecution case

Our understanding was that the prosecution case was that the “unaccounted withdrawals” were monies stolen from residents (although Mr Thyme’s witness statement said that there had been inappropriate spending on trips out – but not that the entirety of the monies drawn were stolen), that the “unsourced deposits” were stolen cash banked by Pete into his account, and that the bank transfers to Tony were funded from the “unsourced deposits” (and hence were monies stolen by Pete).


Our findings

We were not able to confirm that the “unaccounted withdrawals” were stolen monies (although they might be) because we had not seen the records of Flower Dew Home and because Mr Thyme’s witness statement suggested that only part of the monies withdrawn were stolen or used inappropriately on gifts or treats for Pete and Tony.

We were able to identify on exhibit ABC/1 the particular withdrawals making up the £10,221 which Pete had admitted to stealing, but we could find no reason why Pete had not been charged with the theft of the whole of the unaccounted withdrawals of £12,621 listed on exhibit ABC/1.  It seemed that some withdrawals on the list may simply have been omitted from the theft charges on the indictment in error.

We were able to identify the deposits totalling £12,249 on Pete’s bank account statements and the bank transfers of £7,960 from Pete’s bank accounts to Tony’s on both Pete’s and Tony’s bank statements.

Chart of withdrawals v deposits

But when we looked at the detail of the dates and amounts of the “unaccounted withdrawals” and “unsourced deposits” on exhibit ABC/1 we found that although the total of the withdrawals (the alleged cash stolen) of £12,621 and Pete’s bank deposits of £12,249 were very similar, the timing and pattern of the alleged thefts and the bank deposits did not tie up.

We prepared a graph of the “unaccounted withdrawals” and “unsourced deposits”, day by day, which illustrated the mismatch between the two.  This showed that at least some of the bank deposits occurred before the cash thefts admitted by Pete, which meant that those deposits cannot have related to the thefts in question.

It also became clear that Pete had at least one account with another bank – and those other bank statements had not been obtained by DC Crabtree.  So the picture we had of Pete’s financial affairs was incomplete and, in our opinion at least, some of the inferences drawn by DC Crabtree were therefore not reliable.


Pete’s legitimate income

It seemed that until January 2014 Pete’s monthly salary had been paid by bank transfer from Snodsby Council into the bank account examined by DC Crabtree.  There was a pattern of Pete transferring most of his salary out of this account into his account with the other bank soon after he was paid each month.  Then there seemed to be a series of smaller transfers back to this account, presumably when Pete needed spending money.

After January 2014 there were no salary credits from Snodsby Council, but the transfers into the account from the other bank continued.  We inferred from this that from February 2014 onwards Pete’s monthly salary had been credited to his account with the other bank (although neither ourselves nor DC Crabtree had seen any bank statements for that account).

It had not been suggested that Pete’s monthly salary was proceeds of any crime.


The monies transferred to Tony

We then looked at the timing of the transfers from Pete’s bank account to Tony’s and the credits to Pete’s account immediately before those transfers, to see how far, on a practical level, the transfers to Tony seemed to be funded from the “unsourced deposits” into Pete’s account.

We found that more often than not the transfers to Tony seemed to be more closely related to Pete’s monthly salary credits or to monies Pete had transferred into his account from his account at the other bank.  Of the £7,960 transferred to Tony only £250 looked to be more closely related to “unsourced deposits” than other credits to Pete’s account.


Tony’s loans to Pete

Finally we looked to see if, outside the indictment period of August 2013 to October 2014, there were transfers of monies between Pete and Tony.  Tony had told his solicitors that he had often lent money to his friend Pete and been paid back over time, so there was nothing unusual in Pete transferring money into his bank account.  We did find evidence of such money transfers, in both directions, both before August 2013 and after October 2014.

That finding supported Tony’s evidence in that respect.  It also strengthened the possibility that the transfers from Pete to Tony were repayments of earlier informal loans from Tony to Pete.


Our report and its impact

We prepared a formal expert witness report and submitted it to Tony’s solicitors.  They in turn served copies on the prosecution and the Crown Court.

A little while later the prosecution indicated to Tony’s solicitors that they would not continue with the prosecution of Tony and in due course he was formally acquitted of the charge.

So a prosecution case which at first sight might have appeared to be overwhelming had proved on detailed examination to be full of holes.


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article refers to a criminal prosecution in England and Wales. There are a number of additional issues which could be relevant to criminal proceedings in particular cases which it is not possible to deal with in an article such as this. Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case. Names and certain other details have been changed in this article in order to preserve client confidentiality.)

Criminal Finances Act 2017

Big Ben imageThe new Criminal Finances Bill was published on 13 October 2016. Consideration of the detailed provisions of the Bill by MPs and Lords has now been completed and limited amendments have been made to the original Bill.  When this blog post was last updated (16 April 2018) the final version of the Bill had received Royal Assent and had become the Criminal Finances Act 2017.  However most of the operative sections of the Act are being brought into force by regulations which are being made in stages (updates to the text below indicate provisions which are in force).

The new Act strengthens civil recovery of the proceeds of crime; creates ‘unexplained wealth orders’; creates new offences of failing to prevent the facilitation of tax evasion; and extends existing investigation powers in relation to money laundering and terrorist finances.

It appears that the provisions in the Bill were largely based on suggestions from investigators and prosecutors.  Insofar as the Bill was criticised in parliament those criticisms were to the effect that the Bill’s provisions did not go far enough.



  1. Strengthening civil recovery powers
  2. Unexplained wealth orders
  3. Failing to prevent the facilitation of tax offences
  4. Suspicious Activity Reports and the moratorium period
  5. Tidying up investigation powers
  6. Conclusion
  7. Contacting us


Strengthening civil recovery powers

Originally Part 5 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, which deals with civil recovery, contained 87 sections (numbered 240 to 326).  Previous amendments have deleted two of those sections but added 31 new ones.  The new Act adds a further 45 new sections to Part 5 in two entirely new chapters, chapter 3A ‘Recovery of listed assets in summary proceedings’ and chapter 3B ‘Forfeiture of money held in bank and building society accounts’.

The existing chapter 3 of PoCA 2002 (which continues in force) makes provision for officers to search for cash, for the detention of cash where (on ‘reasonable grounds’) that cash is suspected to be ‘recoverable property’ (which broadly means proceeds of crime) or is suspected to be intended for use in crime, and is more than the ‘minimum amount’ (which is £1,000), and for the forfeiture of seized cash where the court is satisfied (on a balance of probabilities) that the cash is ‘recoverable property’ or is intended for use in crime (or where no objection has been raised to forfeiture).

In essence the new chapter 3B, inserted by s16, extends similar provisions (except the search provisions) to monies in bank or building society accounts.  That will involve a bank or building society account initially being ‘frozen’ for a period of up to 2 years by an ‘account freezing order’ made in the Magistrates’ Court (which, like a Crown Court restraint order, may initially be made on an ex parte basis).  Application could then be made, by way of an ‘account forfeiture notice’, for monies in the ‘frozen’ account to be forfeit to the Crown without the necessity of a further appearance in the Magistrates’ Court.  Alternatively, or if an objection were made (in writing and normally within 30 days) to the ‘account forfeiture notice’ (for example by the account holder or another interested party), a hearing in the Magistrates’ Court would be required before the monies could be forfeit.

There is provision for the account holder to be informed of the making of an ‘account freezing order’ and the issue of an ‘account forfeiture notice’ and for allowances to be made for monies to be drawn from a ‘frozen’ account – for example to meet living expenses or to allow the running of a business, as well as to meet appropriate legal costs.  There are also provisions to cater for setting aside or variation of an ‘account freezing order’ and for late objections and appeals.

The new chapter 3A, inserted by s15, extends similar provisions (including search provisions) to ‘listed assets’ which  include precious metals, precious stones, watches, artistic works, face-value vouchers and postage stamps.  The chapter 3A provisions also cater for associated property and joint property (where only part of an asset is subject to forfeiture).  Again a ‘minimum value’ of £1,000 applies.

The Act also provides, s14, for the definition of “cash” in s289 PoCA 2002 to be extended.  The definition already included cheques (including travellers’ cheques), bankers’ drafts, postal orders, bearer bonds and bearer shares.  It will now include gaming vouchers, fixed-value casino tokens and betting receipts.  The idea is to cover what might be described as ‘cash substitutes’ which could be used by criminals as an alternative means of transferring value.  A similar amendment is made to the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 in respect of “terrorist cash”.

The scope of ‘unlawful conduct’ which may be the basis of civil recovery action under Part 5, PoCA 2002 is extended by s13 to include ‘gross human rights abuse or violation’ which is defined by a new section 241A PoCA 2002.

[UPDATE: The provisions of s16, inserting a new chapter 3B into PoCA 2002, came into force on 31 January 2018.  The provisions of s15, inserting a new chapter 3A into PoCA 2002, and s14, extending the definition of cash, came into force on 16 April 2018.]


Unexplained wealth orders

The Act creates ‘unexplained wealth orders’ by s1.  An ‘unexplained wealth order’ requires an individual to set out the nature and extent of his interest in the property specified in the order, and to explain how he obtained that property in cases where that person’s known income does not explain ownership of that property.

It therefore allows an enforcement authority to require an individual to explain the origin of assets that appear to be disproportionate to his income.  It is important to recognise that ‘unexplained wealth orders’ form part of chapter 8 of PoCA 2002 which deals with powers of investigation (new sections applicable to England and Wales are inserted after s362 of PoCA 2002) – rather than part 5 which deals with civil recovery.

Applications for ‘unexplained wealth orders’ are to be made to the High Court, who would need to be satisfied either that there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that the respondent is, or has been, involved in serious crime (or a person connected with the respondent is, or has been, so involved) or that the respondent is an overseas ‘politically exposed person’ (meaning an individual who has been entrusted with prominent public functions by an international organisation or a State outside of the UK or the European Economic Area, or a close relative or associate of such a person).

Serious crime refers to an offence set out in Schedule 1 to the Serious Crime Act 2007 (including some drug trafficking, arms trafficking, people trafficking and modern slavery offences, organised crime, money laundering, firearms offences, prostitution offences, fraud, tax evasion, bribery, counterfeiting and trade mark offences, poaching and environmental offences).

In the case of an overseas ‘politically exposed person’ there would be no requirement for a suspicion of serious criminality.

In the original Bill, an application for an ‘unexplained wealth order’ could only be made in connection with property having a value greater than £100,000.  During the Bill’s passage through parliament this figure was reduced to £50,000.

Where a person provides information in response to an ‘unexplained wealth order’ the authority may use that information as a basis for civil recovery proceedings under Part 5 or in connection with any confiscation proceedings under Part 2 PoCA 2002.

Where a person fails to provide information in response to an ‘unexplained wealth order’ (without reasonable excuse) there will be a rebuttable presumption that the property in question is ‘recoverable property’ for the purposes of any civil recovery proceedings taken subsequently.

Alongside the proposed new ‘unexplained wealth orders’ will be new ‘interim freezing orders’, introduced by s2, to ‘freeze’ assets subject to ‘unexplained wealth orders’ to prevent their dissipation.

[UPDATE: The provisions relating to unexplained wealth orders came into force on 31 January 2018.]


Failing to prevent the facilitation of tax offences

The Act creates, at sections 44 to 52, a new offence of failing to prevent the facilitation of tax offences.  This new offence may be committed by an organisation such as a limited company or a partnership (but not by an individual).  The essence of the offence is that where an individual has committed an offence which has facilitated a tax offence by another, then the organisation with which he is connected (typically his employer) may be prosecuted for its failure to prevent the individual committing his offence.

For example if an employee of a bank or a firm of accountants facilitates a tax offence by a customer or client then not only will that employee be liable to prosecution (as he is now) for his criminal conduct in facilitating the tax offence but the organisation will be liable to prosecution for this new offence.  In this way the government intends to hold organisations to account for the criminal misconduct of their employees and other persons acting on their behalf.

Under existing law the organisation would only be liable to prosecution if the ‘directing minds’ of the organisation were engaged in criminal conduct.  Because employees who commit tax evasion facilitation offences are typically not at the most senior level of the organisation which employs them the organisation itself is not currently at risk of prosecution.  The Act changes that.

The new offence is modelled on the s7 Bribery Act 2010 offence of failing to prevent bribery.

As with the Bribery Act offence, guidance will be issued to assist organisations to set up appropriate procedures to prevent tax evasion facilitation offences by their employees and agents.  Key principles are likely to include risk assessment, prevention procedures, due diligence, staff training, and monitoring and review.

[UPDATE: These provisions came into force on 30 September 2017.]


Suspicious Activity Reports and the moratorium period

Provisions in the Act aim to make more effective the Suspicious Activity Reports regime.  There is a new power, introduced by s12, allowing the National Crime Agency to require any person within the ‘regulated sector’ (that is businesses subject to the Money Laundering Regulations and obliged to make a Suspicious Activity Report in appropriate circumstances) to provide relevant information to the NCA where the NCA has received a SAR (whether from that person or another) or a request by an overseas authority.  If necessary an order may be made in the Magistrates’ Court compelling disclosure of the required information (with a penalty of up to £5,000 for non-compliance).

Previously the SARs regime operated on a ‘shop and stop’ basis.  Where a reporting entity, such as a bank or firm of accountants or lawyers, made a report it was relieved of any obligation of client confidentiality with regard to the content of the SAR.  But the reporter was not in a position to provide follow up information or further details to the NCA where ordinary client confidentiality prevented that.  So once the report had been submitted the reporter was effectively stopped from providing further details.  The provisions in the Act remove any obstacle to the supply of further information (except in respect of information covered by legal privilege).

Another change, introduced by s11 of the Act, facilitates the exchange of information about suspicious activities between different businesses within the ‘regulated sector’ so that, where appropriate, they can co-ordinate their reports and actions in relation to those suspicions.

Customers of banks in particular may be concerned by further provisions, inserted by s10 of the Act, allowing the ‘moratorium period’ (during which, for example, a bank account may be frozen) to be extended by up to six months longer than was previously permitted.

Under previous legislation a bank could freeze a customer’s account pending consent from the NCA initially for a period of seven working days and then for an additional period of no longer than 31 calendar days.  This 31 day period is known as the ‘moratorium period’.  Under the new provisions the NCA (or other appropriate investigator such as the police or HMRC) can apply to the Crown Court for the moratorium period in respect of a particular SAR to be extended.  Initially the Crown Court could grant an extension of (up to) 31 days and the court would have power, upon further applications by the investigator, to grant further (up to) 31 day extensions – up to a maximum extension of 186 days from the end of the original moratorium period.  Extensions could be granted where the Court is satisfied that it is necessary and reasonable, and where an investigation is being conducted diligently and expeditiously.  The Court may exclude from any part of its hearings concerning extending the ‘moratorium period’ the ‘interested person’ (the holder of a frozen bank account for example) and his legal representatives.

It follows that a customer’s bank account could be frozen for more than seven months without the customer having an opportunity to hear the evidence upon which the suspicion of money laundering was based and to effectively challenge that evidence or provide appropriate explanations.  Such a long period of account freezing could have very serious implications for the customer.

These provisions of the Act add new sections to Part 7 PoCA 2002.

[UPDATE: These provisions came into force on 31 October 2017.]


Tidying up investigation powers

The Act also contains various provisions to tidy up the PoCA 2002 provisions relating to powers of investigation.

In particular amendments made by s7 allow ‘disclosure orders’ under s357 PoCA 2002 to be obtained in connection with money laundering investigations and, by s33, the investigation powers of Part 8 PoCA 2002 become available for revisits under s22 PoCA 2002 to a defendant’s available amount in relation to an existing confiscation order.

Section 32 of the Act ensures that confiscation orders which are discharged under s24 or s25 PoCA 2002 may still be subject to reconsideration under s21 or s22 PoCA 2002.

The Act also extends PoCA 2002 enforcement and investigation powers more coherently to HMRC, the Serious Fraud Office, the Financial Conduct Authority and immigration officers.

[UPDATE: Some of these provisions have now come into force.]



The Criminal Finances Act 2017 makes significant changes to a variety of PoCA 2002 provisions with corresponding amendments to the law relating to terrorist property.


Contacting us

Our contact details are here.


(Note: This article deals with the Criminal Finances Act 2017 so far as it applies in England and Wales.  At the time of writing not all of the operative provisions of the Act had been brought into force.   Appropriate professional advice should be sought in each individual case.)